Tupolev Tu 4Tupolev Tu 4

The book is illustrated with many color side views and hitherto unpublished photographs.

Author: Yefim Gordon

Publisher: Schiffer Military History

ISBN: 0764347977


Page: 240

View: 870

After World War II, the Soviet Union and the USA, who had been allies in the war, started moving towards political and military confrontation. The Soviet Union urgently needed a strategic bomber capable of striking at the USA. Thus, the windfall of three battle-damaged B-29s forced to land in Soviet territory was most welcome. The Soviet Union kept them; a huge reverse-engineering effort ensued, resulting in a Soviet copy of the Superfortress (the Tu-4) and a major technology boost to the Soviet aircraft and avionics industries. From then on, the "Soviet Superfortress" evolved independently, some of the Tu-4 versions having no direct U.S. equivalent. These included the Tu-4K missile carrier, a wing-to-wing flight refuelling tanker, and the Tu-4T transport. The Tu-4A was the first Soviet nuclear-capable bomber. Experimental versions included engine testbeds, a towed escort fighter program, and more. The book also describes the Tu-4s production and service history (including service in China -- the only nation besides the USSR to operate the type) and touches on the Tu-4s transport derivatives, the Tu-70 airliner, and the Tu-75 military airlifter. The book is illustrated with many colour side-views and hitherto unpublished photographs.

Soviet Strategic BombersSoviet Strategic Bombers

The history of Soviet strategic bombers after the Second World War is a fascinating one: from the reverse-engineering of interned American Boeing B-29 bombers into the first Soviet strategic bomber, the Tu-4; to the huge jet and turbo-prop ...

Author: Jason Nicholas Moore

Publisher: Fonthill Media



Page: 304

View: 159

The history of Soviet strategic bombers after the Second World War is a fascinating one: from the reverse-engineering of interned American Boeing B-29 bombers into the first Soviet strategic bomber, the Tu-4; to the huge jet and turbo-prop powered aircraft of today's Russian Air Force. This comprehensive history of these aircraft will deal not just with the development of aircraft that entered service, but of experimental aircraft as well, and projects that were never even built will also be explored. The service life of these bombers will be covered, including both active and retired aircraft, and their use outside of the Soviet Union, in places such as the Middle East and Afghanistan, will be described in detail. The Soviet Union built some of the first jet-powered strategic bombers, and the Tu-95 Bear, the only swept-winged turbo-prop bomber to ever enter service, remains in service to this day. Less successful aircraft, like the graceful but problem-plagued supersonic Tu-22 Blinder, and the Mach 3 Sukhoi T-4 will also be examined.

Soviet Strategic Aviation in the Cold WarSoviet Strategic Aviation in the Cold War

Soviet Strategic Aviation in the Cold War shows how the DA's order of battle changed in the period from 1945 to 1991.

Author: E. Gordon


ISBN: STANFORD:36105124133187


Page: 272

View: 943

Born in the 1930s, the Soviet Air Force's long-range bomber arm (known initially as the ADD and later as the DA) proved itself during World War II and continued to develop in the immediate post-war years, when the former allies turned Cold War opponents. When the strategic bomber Tu-4 was found to be too 'short-legged' to deliver strikes against the main potential adversary - the USA, both Tupolev and Myasishchev OKBs began the task by creating turbine-engined strategic bombers. By the Khrushchev era in the mid/late 1950's the Soviet defense industry and aircraft design bureau set about adapting the bombers to take air-launched missiles for use against land and sea targets. In 1962 the DA fielded its first supersonic aircraft - the Tu-22 Blinder twinjet, which came in pure bomber and missile strike versions. The Brezhnev years saw a resurgence of strategic aviation with the Tu-22M Backfire 'swing-wing' supersonic medium bomber entering service in the mid-1970s followed in 1984 by the Tu-95MS Bear-H and Tu-160 Blackjack which were capable of carrying six and 12 air-launched cruise missiles respectively. Soviet Strategic Aviation in the Cold War shows how the DA's order of battle changed in the period from 1945 to 1991. Major operations including the air arm's involvement in the Afghan War, the Cold War exercises over international waters in the vicinity of the 'potential adversary', and the shadowing of NATO warships are covered together with details of Air Armies, bomber divisions and bomber regiments, including their aircraft on a type-by-type basis. More than 500 photos, most of which are previously unpublished in the West, are supplemented by 61 color profiles, color badges, and line drawings of the aircraft and their weapons, making this an essential reference source for the historian and modeler alike.

OKB TupolevOKB Tupolev

A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft Yefim Gordon & Vladimir Rigmant The origins of the design bureau that was to bear his name can be traced back to the appointment of Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev as head of the TsAGI's Aviation ...

Author: Yefim Gordon

Publisher: Midland Pub Limited

ISBN: STANFORD:36105120993576


Page: 368

View: 402

A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft Yefim Gordon & Vladimir Rigmant The origins of the design bureau that was to bear his name can be traced back to the appointment of Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev as head of the TsAGI's Aviation Department in 1918. Over the years, nearly 300 projects have evolved within the OKB. Nearly 90 reached the prototype construction stage, with more than 40 types put into series production.In the 1930s, the TB-1 (ANT-4) and TB-3 (ANT-6) bombers, the latter being the world's first heavy strategic bomber, paved the way for the long line of large multi-engined aircraft both civil and military for which the OKB is justly famed. Wartime production of the SB and Tu-2 plus the remarkable 'reverse engineering' of the Boeing B-29 that resulted in the Tu-4 led on to the jet Tu-16 and prop Tu-95 bombers. These, in turn were adapted for civil purposes as the Tu-104 and Tu-114 airliners. The supersonic Tu-22 and Tu-22M bombers and the Tu-144 airliner, a move into pilotless aircraft and a host of imaginative but unbuilt projects complete a fascinating work.

Soviet Bombers of the Second World WarSoviet Bombers of the Second World War

This book will deal with both strategic bombers and tactical bombers, but will concentrate on the smaller tactical bombers, as this is where the Red Air Force's emphasis lay.

Author: Jason Nicholas Moore

Publisher: Fonthill Media



Page: 384

View: 147

Soviet bombers were a varied lot during the Second World War, ranging from single-engined biplanes such as the 1920's era Polikarpov U-2 to the excellent and modern twin-engined Tu-2 medium bomber. Although the use of four-engined strategic bombers was mostly limited to use of the huge Pe-8 bomber, the Soviets used many other aircraft for both strategic and tactical bombing. As the bombers of the Red Air Force were mainly tasked with supporting the Red Army, most of the bombers were used for tactical bombing, attacking tanks, troop convoys, trains, and airfields. This book will deal with both strategic bombers and tactical bombers, but will concentrate on the smaller tactical bombers, as this is where the Red Air Force's emphasis lay. Such types as the Il-4, the Su-2, the aforementioned Tu-2, and the most important bomber of all, the Il-2 Shturmovik attack bomber, will be described in great detail, including not only details on the aircraft themselves, but how they were deployed in combat. The one truly strategic bomber, the Pe-8, will not be forgotten, and neither will the comparatively tiny U-2 biplane, which was so effective in its use as a night-time "nuisance" raider that the Germans copied the tactic wholesale. Accurate colour profiles in some number will accompany the text in this comprehensive work on Soviet bombers.

Emergency War PlanEmergency War Plan

Hinckley, UK: Midland, 2006. Gordon, Yefim, Dmitriy Kommissarov, and Vladimir Rigmant. Tupolev tu- 4: The First Soviet Strategic Bomber.

Author: Sean M. Maloney

Publisher: Potomac Books

ISBN: 9781640122345


Page: 552

View: 310

Emergency War Plan examines the theory and practice of American nuclear deterrence and its evolution during the Cold War. Previous examinations of nuclear strategy during this time have, for the most part, categorized American efforts as “massive retaliation” and “mutually assured destruction,” blunt instruments to be casually dismissed in favor of more flexible approaches or summed up in inflammatory and judgmental terms like “MAD.” These descriptors evolved into slogans, and any nuanced discussion of the efficacy of the actual strategies withered due to a variety of political and social factors. Drawing on newly released weapons effects information along with new information about Soviet capabilities as well as risky and covert espionage missions, Emergency War Plan provides a completely new examination of American nuclear deterrence strategy during the first fifteen years of the Cold War, the first such study since the 1980s. Ultimately what emerges is a picture of a gargantuan and potentially devastating enterprise that was understood at the time by the public in only the vaguest terms but that was not as out of control as has been alleged and was more nuanced than previously understood.

Birthplace of the Atomic BombBirthplace of the Atomic Bomb

The Tu-4 was the soviet Union's first strategic bomber (and as supplied by Russia, china's as well). The British aviation periodical Air Enthusiast provided ...

Author: William S. Loring

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 9781476633817


Page: 445

View: 559

It was not Robert Oppenheimer who built the bomb--it was engineers, chemists and young physicists in their twenties, many not yet having earned a degree. The first atomic bomb was originally conceived as a backup device, a weapon not then currently achievable. The remote Trinity Site--the birthplace of the bomb--was used as a test range for U.S. bombers before the first nuclear device was secretly detonated. After the blast, locals speculated that the flash and rumble were caused by colliding B-29s, while Manhattan Project officials nervously measured high levels of offsite radiation. Drawing on original documents, many recently declassified, the author sheds new light on a pivotal moment in history--now approaching its 75th anniversary--told from the point of view of the men who inaugurated the Atomic Age in the New Mexico desert. p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px 'Times New Roman'}

Fighters Over the FleetFighters Over the Fleet

and Rigmant, Vladimir, Tupolev Tu-4: The First Soviet Strategic Bomber (Atglen: Schiffer, 2014). Green, William, and Cross, Roy, The Jet Aircraft of the ...

Author: Norman Friedman

Publisher: Casemate Publishers

ISBN: 9781848324060


Page: 400

View: 808

A tactical and technical history of the development of British, American, and Japanese naval air defense from the 1920s to the 1980s. This is an account of the evolution of naval fighters for fleet air defense and the parallel evolution of the ships operating and controlling them, concentrating on the three main exponents of carrier warfare: the British Royal Navy, the U.S. Navy, and the Imperial Japanese Navy. It describes the earliest efforts from the 1920s, but it was not until radar allowed the direction of fighters that organized air defense became possible. Thus, major naval-air battles of the Second World War like Midway, the Pedestal convoy, the Philippine Sea, and Okinawa are portrayed as tests of the new technology. This was ultimately found wanting by the Kamikaze campaigns, leading to postwar moves towards computer control and new kinds of fighters. After 1945 the threats of nuclear weapons and standoff missiles compounded the difficulties of naval air defense. The second half of the book covers R.N. and U.S.N. attempts to solve these problems, looking at the American experience in Vietnam and British operations in the Falklands War. It concludes with the ultimate U.S. development of techniques and technology to fight the Outer Air Battle in the 1980s, which in turn point to the current state of carrier fighters and the supporting technology. Based largely on documentary sources, some previously unused, this book will appeal to both the naval and aviation communities. “Fighters Over the Fleet provides more information about fleet air defense than any other work currently available. It is recommended for specialist as well aviation-minded readers.” —Naval Historical Foundation


Tupolev Tu-4 bombers were the first refueling platforms, followed by the ... the Soviet Union, where the flying boom was never A Tu-95 strategic bomber is ...


Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9780359466818


Page: 198

View: 411

The book presents history, methods, airplanes and operators in the area of Aerial Refueling, it shows an historical analysis from the first attempts in the aeronautical circuses, up to the affirmation as a military necessity after World War II and the subsequent expansion in many air forces Contents: - Development from the first attempts of 1929 to the first flight around the world without a stop - Detailed presentation of the various methods attempted in history, with drawings and photographs, - Description of types of aircraft in service performing in-flight refueling - Presentation of Air Forces, Units, their history, the strategic reasons that have developed the need for a fleet of tankers for the current 34 air forces, the future ones, as well as commercial operators - Presentation of of some unusual aircraft refueling attempts and vision on in-flight refueling systems in the - Fully illustrated with over 700 color images and drawings - 200 pages

The United States Air Force A ChronologyThe United States Air Force A Chronology

This particular aircraft serves as the model for the Tupolev Tu-4 BULL, the first Soviet strategic bomber which flies in 1947. In the Pacific, B-25s and ...

Author: John C. Fredriksen

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781598846836


Page: 351

View: 531

Understand the growth and evolution of American air power with this overview of the history of the world's most successful aviation force. • Comprehensive, daily coverage of relevant wartime and peacetime events as they affected the U.S. Air Force as an institution and fighting machine • Illustrations of important aircraft, personalities, and historical events • Over 20 sidebars affording greater detail and context on notable events and people • A 5,000-word bibliography of the latest scholarship on U.S. Air Force history, organization, leadership, and equipment

Tupolev TU 22Tupolev TU 22

Tupolev's resulting copy of the B—29 became the Tu-4 Bull, and was built in ... strategic bomber necessary for the Soviet Union to implement its post-war ...

Author: Sergey Burdin

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 9781844152414


Page: 256

View: 576

This historic Russian aircraft was first delivered to the Soviet Air Force at the height of the Cold War in 1961. It remained in service until replaced by the much modified Tu-22M Backfire which was introduced in the early 1970s and still remains in service. It was the first Soviet supersonic bomber and was used for reconnaissance and bombing, in the latter role carrying either conventional or nuclear bombs. The early aircraft had a range of 1,800 miles but later models had a much increased radius of action through the introduction of in-flight refuelling. This book looks at the design and development of the aircraft up to the introduction of the type M Backfire. Details of construction, weapon systems, photo-reconnaissance and jamming equipment are included to cover the several variant models. Operational use is explained and the text includes many first-hand accounts from Russian aircrew of the period. The book will be superbly illustrated by unique official photographs and manuals.

A Military History of the Cold War 1944 1962A Military History of the Cold War 1944 1962

Together with Germandesigned radar systems, the MiG15 gave the Soviet Uniona rudimentary ... theTu4gave the Sovietsatrue strategic bomber forthe first time.

Author: Jonathan M. House

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 9780806146904


Page: 560

View: 641

The Cold War did not culminate in World War III as so many in the 1950s and 1960s feared, yet it spawned a host of military engagements that affected millions of lives. This book is the first comprehensive, multinational overview of military affairs during the early Cold War, beginning with conflicts during World War II in Warsaw, Athens, and Saigon and ending with the Cuban Missile Crisis. A major theme of this account is the relationship between government policy and military preparedness and strategy. Author Jonathan M. House tells of generals engaging in policy confrontations with their governments’ political leaders—among them Anthony Eden, Nikita Khrushchev, and John F. Kennedy—many of whom made military decisions that hamstrung their own political goals. In the pressure-cooker atmosphere of atomic preparedness, politicians as well as soldiers seemed instinctively to prefer military solutions to political problems. And national security policies had military implications that took on a life of their own. The invasion of South Korea convinced European policy makers that effective deterrence and containment required building up and maintaining credible forces. Desire to strengthen the North Atlantic alliance militarily accelerated the rearmament of West Germany and the drive for its sovereignty. In addition to examining the major confrontations, nuclear and conventional, between Washington, Moscow, and Beijing—including the crises over Berlin and Formosa—House traces often overlooked military operations against the insurgencies of the era, such as French efforts in Indochina and Algeria and British struggles in Malaya, Kenya, Cyprus, and Aden. Now, more than fifty years after the events House describes, understanding the origins and trajectory of the Cold War is as important as ever. By the late 1950s, the United States had sent forces to Vietnam and the Middle East, setting the stage for future conflicts in both regions. House’s account of the complex relationship between diplomacy and military action directly relates to the insurgencies, counterinsurgencies, and confrontations that now occupy our attention across the globe.

Russian Aviation and Air Power in the Twentieth CenturyRussian Aviation and Air Power in the Twentieth Century

Tupolev's postwar career included the complete copying of the Boeing B - 29 to produce the Tu - 4 , the first truly strategic bomber in the Soviet inventory ...

Author: Robin Higham

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0714647845


Page: 320

View: 547

In 1977, Robin Higham and Jacob Kipp edited Soviet Aviation and Air Power, the first comprehensive study of Russian aviation. This new volume brings together both new editors and new contributors, to take a fresh look at Russian and Soviet aviation in the twentieth century. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990, new archives have become available as well as new perspectives, and all the contributors to this new volume have based their research on newly available material. While some chapters update those in the 1977 work, most break new ground, such as those dealing with the aircraft industry, the designers, and Soviet Air combat on the periphery.

The History of Air Intercept Radar the British Nightfighter 1935 1959The History of Air Intercept Radar the British Nightfighter 1935 1959

Alexander, Jean, Russian Aircraft Since 1940, London: Putnam, 1975. ... Gordon, Yefim, Myasishchev M-4 and 3M, The First Soviet Strategic Bomber, ...

Author: Ian White

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 9781526743466


Page: 340

View: 279

This detailed history of Air Intercept radar traces the development of this vital military technology with the Royal Air Force during WWII. In the years after World War I, the United Kingdom was desperate to develop some form of protection from an enemy air strike. As early as 1923, the British Army had devised “sound mirrors” that could detect aircraft up to twelve miles away. This technical history traces the development of military radar technology from this early, experimental phase to the creation of the first air-to-air radar systems and their uses in battle. Historian Ian White sets this fascinating narrative within the larger political, military, economic and technological context of the era. Through World War II, Air Intercept radar was a vital asset in protecting RAF bomber forces as well as the country itself. But developing the technology required the tireless work of physicists and engineers in the Air Ministry Research Establishment, particularly members of the Establishment’s Airborne Group working under Dr. Edward Bowen. Their Airborne Interception radars, such as the AI Mk. IV, were used in Blenheim night-fighters during the winter Blitz and by Mosquito during the Baedeker Raids. This in-depth history covers the introduction of centimetric technology at the Telecommunications Research Establishment, the creation of centimetric AI, and their installation in the Beaufighter and later marks of the Mosquito. It describes the creation of the Radiation Laboratory at MIT and concludes with a section on further developments during the Cold War.

Rolling ThunderRolling Thunder

The threat looked even more real when America's first strategic jet bomber, the B-47 Stratojet, flew for the first time on 17 December 1947. The Soviet ...

Author: Ivan Rendall

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9780684857800


Page: 336

View: 391

Chronicles the evolution of modern aerial warfare, from World War II, through the Cold War, to the Middle East Gulf crisis, and decribes the development of the quintessential fighter pilot

The Cold WarThe Cold War

Even those who supported the need for a new bomber could not agree on ... Tu-16 The first Soviet design to enter service, in 1954, was the Tupolev Tu-16 ...

Author: David Miller

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9781466892279


Page: 480

View: 346

In The Cold War: A Military History, David Miller, a preeminent Cold War scholar, writes insightfully of the historic effects of the military build-up brought on by the Cold War and its concomitant effect on strategy. Bringing together for the first time newly declassified information, Miller takes readers inside the arsenals of the superpowers, describing how intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-based missiles, strategic bombers, and conventional weapons were employed by both sides, as well as the ways in which they were, at many points, almost brought to bear. His in-depth analysis of how military strategy shaped history, and his accounts of crises which could have turned the Cold War hot--the suppression of the Budapest uprising in 1956, and the imposition of martial law in Poland in 1981--are particularly compelling. Many books have been written about the politics in this turbulent period, but none have so comprehensively examined the military strategy and tactics of this dangerous era.

Aerial Warfare A Very Short IntroductionAerial Warfare A Very Short Introduction

Concerning stolen designs, the first post-WW2 truly 'strategic Soviet bomber, the Tupolev Tu-4, was a straight copy of the US Boeing B-29 Superfortress, ...

Author: Frank Ledwidge

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192526359


Page: 152

View: 307

Aerial warfare has dominated war-making for over 100 years, and despite regular announcements of its demise, it shows no sign of becoming obsolete. In this Very Short Introduction Frank Ledwidge offers a sweeping look at the history of aerial warfare, introducing the major battles, crises, and controversies where air power has taken centre stage, and the changes in technology and air power capabilities over time. Highlighting the role played by air power in the First and Second World Wars, he also sheds light on the lesser-known theatres where the roles of air forces have been clearly decisive in conflicts, in Africa, South America, and Asia. Along the way, Ledwidge asks key questions about the roles air power can deliver, and whether it is conceptually different from other forms of combat. Considering whether bombing has ever been truly effective, he discusses whether wars can be won from the air, and concludes by analysing whether there is a future for manned air power, or if it is inevitable that drones will dominate 21st century war in the air. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Previously published in hardback as Aerial Warfare: The Battle for the Skies.

The Kremlin s Nuclear SwordThe Kremlin s Nuclear Sword

At theoutset of thewar in 1941, there wereonly four heavy-bomber regiments, ... the Soviet Air Force lacked a strategic-bomber force duringthe war.

Author: Steven J. Zaloga

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 9781588344854


Page: 304

View: 912

The prevailing Western view of Russia’s Cold War strategic nuclear weapons policy is that it resulted from a two-part interplay between the leaders of the Communist Party and the military. Steven J. Zaloga has found that a third contributor—the Russian defense industry—also played a vital role. Drawing from elusive Russian source material and interviews with many proud Russian and Ukrainian engineers, Zaloga presents a definitive account of Russia’s strategic forces, who built them, and why. The book is the first in English to refer to the weapons by their actual Soviet names, providing the bedrock for future works. Helpful appendices list U.S., NATO, and other designations, and the illustrations provide clear visual references.