This book proposes an overall framework of communication (including translation) that follows CDA (Critical Discourse Analysis)/CL (Critical Linguistics) principles; it devises an analytic tool for the study of transitivity in translation ...
Author: María Calzada Pérez
Publisher: Peter Lang
This book proposes an overall framework of communication (including translation) that follows CDA (Critical Discourse Analysis)/CL (Critical Linguistics) principles; it devises an analytic tool for the study of transitivity in translation along Hallidayian-functionalist lines; and it incorporates a contrastive corpus of 52 speeches made before the European Parliament in English and Spanish on 9th March 1993 together with their corresponding translations. Both sentence and textual levels become units of analysis. Also, quantitative and qualitative methods are applied. The author analyses the various types of transitivity shifts at sentence level. She also shows that these shifts have contextual effects. Another focus of this study is to present how certain transitivity shifts group together.
On the basis of the data presented in this important essay, the translator must
carefully consider the choices that the Spanish transitivity system offers when
translating a clause such as Bonéetoug &Xpóvto otogovvovteg to thotov (27.17),
Author: Gustavo Martín-Asensio
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This study of the language of Acts is based on M. A. K. Halliday's functional grammar, which offers a theory based on linguistic choices and the effects they have on readers or hearers. Interacting with selected interpretations from, among others, C.K. Barrett, Ben C. Witherington, Jerome Neyrey, Jacob Jervell and John Lentz, Martín-Asensio argues that transitivity ('who does what to whom') emerges as a key factor in the foregrounding scheme of Acts, and this analysis offers a linguistically based perspective on Luke's overall concern to underline the supremacy of the divine will on the stage of human affairs.
Do Women and Men Translate Differently? : a Contrastive Analysis from Italian ...
2 Transitivity Halliday makes a distinction between three language functions ,
ideational , interpersonal , and textual ( 1978 : 45 – 46 ) . As seen in Chapter 3 .
Author: Vanessa Leonardi
Publisher: Peter Lang
Leonardi analyses and evaluates the problems that may arise from ideology-driven shifts in the translation process as a result of gender differences. First she offers a theoretical background, draws up an analytic checklist of linguistic tools and states the main hypothesis, then she tests the hypothesis with four empirical analyses.
it, aroused new forms of anxiety as German readers were confronted by what
Chad Wellmon recognises as a feeling of “information overload” (68), a feeling
that could only have been augmented by the profusion of translated material. In
Author: Annika Bautz
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
This book makes an important contribution to transatlantic literary studies and an emerging body of work on identity formation and print culture in the Atlantic world. The collection identifies the ways in which historically-situated but malleable subjectivities engage with popular and pressing debates about class, slavery, natural knowledge, democracy, and religion. In addition, the book also considers the ways in which material texts and genres, including, for example, the essay, the guidebook, the travel narrative, the periodical, the novel, and the poem, can be scrutinized in relation to historically-situated transatlantic transitions, transformations, and border crossings. The volume is underpinned by a thorough examination of historical and conceptual frameworks and prioritizes notions of circulation and exchange, as opposed to transfer and continuance, in its analysis of authors, texts, and ideas. The collection is concerned with the movement of people, texts, and ideas in the currents of transatlantic markets and politics, taking a fresh look at a range of canonical and popular writers of the period, including Austen, Poe, Crèvecoeur, Brockden Brown, Sedgwick, Hemans, Bulwer-Lytton, Dickens, and Melville. In different ways, the essays gathered together here are concerned with the potentially empowering realities of the transitive, circulatory, and contingent experiences of transatlantic literary and cultural production as they are manifest in the long nineteenth century.
Transitive. Planes. An 'autotopism group' of an affine translation plane π is a
group of collineations G that fixes two points on the line of infinity of the projective
extension π+ of π and fixes an affine point P. The triangle so formed in π+ is
Author: Norman Johnson
Publisher: CRC Press
The Handbook of Finite Translation Planes provides a comprehensive listing of all translation planes derived from a fundamental construction technique, an explanation of the classes of translation planes using both descriptions and construction methods, and thorough sketches of the major relevant theorems. From the methods of André to coordinate and linear algebra, the book unifies the numerous diverse approaches for analyzing finite translation planes. It pays particular attention to the processes that are used to study translation planes, including ovoid and Klein quadric projection, multiple derivation, hyper-regulus replacement, subregular lifting, conical distortion, and Hermitian sequences. In addition, the book demonstrates how the collineation group can affect the structure of the plane and what information can be obtained by imposing group theoretic conditions on the plane. The authors also examine semifield and division ring planes and introduce the geometries of two-dimensional translation planes. As a compendium of examples, processes, construction techniques, and models, the Handbook of Finite Translation Planes equips readers with precise information for finding a particular plane. It presents the classification results for translation planes and the general outlines of their proofs, offers a full review of all recognized construction techniques for translation planes, and illustrates known examples.
study of translations produced in institutional settings from the point of view of
ideational shifts. Maria Calzada Pérez (2001) and Ian Mason (2003) have both
focused on transitivity shifts, and transitivity is typically classified asbelonging ...
Author: Kaisa Koskinen
Translating Institutions outlines a framework for research on translation in institutional settings, using the Finnish translation unit at the European Commission as a case study. Because of their foundational multilingualism, the institutions of the European Union could be described as both translating and translated institutions. The European Commission alone employs nearly two thousand translators, and it is translators who draft the vast majority of outgoing EU messages. Translating Institutions sets out to explore the organizational role and professional identity of this group of cultural mediators, a group that has remained relatively invisible despite its size and central institutional role, and to use the analysis of this data to elaborate broader methodological and theoretical issues. Translating Institutions adopts an ethnographic approach to explore the life and work of the translators at the centre of this study. In practice, this entails employing a number of different methods and interrogating various types of data. The three-level research design used covers the study of the institutional framework, the study of translators working in specific institutional settings, and the study of translated documents and their source texts. This is therefore a study of both texts and people in their institutional habitat. Given the methodological focus of the volume, the different methods and data are outlined in independent chapters: the institutional framework of translation (institutional ethnography), the physical location of the unit (observation), translators' own views of their role (focus group discussions), and a sociologically-oriented text analysis of a sample document (shifts analysis). Translating Institutions constitutes a valuable contribution to the sociology of translation. It opens up new avenues for research and offers a detailed framework for the study of institutional translation.
In this chapter we will take a look at transitive, intransitive, positional, and other
verb types. Before introducing the verbs and their voices, let's briefly discuss
agglutinating verbal phrases. An agglutinating verbal phrase is simply a verbal
Author: Scott A.J. Johnson
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
Maya hieroglyphic writing may seem impossibly opaque to beginning students, but scholar Scott A. J. Johnson presents it as a regular and comprehensible system in this engaging, easy-to-follow textbook. The only comprehensive introduction designed specifically for those new to the study, Translating Maya Hieroglyphs uses a hands-on approach to teach learners the current state of Maya epigraphy. Johnson shows readers step by step how to translate ancient Maya glyphs. He begins by describing how to break down a Mayan text into individual glyphs in the correct reading order, and then explains the different types of glyphs and how they function in the script. Finally, he shows how to systematically convert a Mayan inscription into modern English. Not simply a reference volume, Translating Maya Hieroglyphs is pedagogically arranged so that it functions as an introductory foreign-language textbook. Chapters cover key topics, including spelling, dates and numbers, basic grammar, and verbs. Formal linguistic information is accessibly explained, while worksheets and exercises complement and reinforce the material covered in the text. Glyph blocks and phrases drawn from actual monuments illustrate the variety and scribal virtuosity of Maya writing. The Maya writing system has not been fully deciphered. Throughout the text, Johnson outlines and explains the outstanding disputes among Mayanists. At the end of each chapter, he offers sources for further reading. Helpful appendices provide quick reference to vocabulary, glyph meanings, and calendrical data for students undertaking a translation. The study of Maya glyphs has long been an arcane subject known only to a few specialists. This book will change that. Taking advantage of the great strides scholars have made in deciphering hieroglyphs in the past four decades, Translating Maya Hieroglyphs brings this knowledge to a broader audience, including archaeologists and budding epigraphers.
A Contemporary Approach and Translation Sophus Lie Joël Merker. Chapter 13
Transitivity, Invariants, Primitivity The concepts of transitivity and of primitivity
which play such a broad rôle in the theory of substitutions, shall be extended ...
Author: Sophus Lie
This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, playing a role in representation theory, algebraic geometry, Galois theory, the theory of partial differential equations and also in physics, for example in general relativity. This volume is of interest to researchers in Lie theory and exterior differential systems and also to historians of mathematics. The prerequisites are a basic knowledge of differential calculus, ordinary differential equations and differential geometry.
It seems crucial to ask how far a translator's choices affect the novel's point of view, and whether characters or narrators come across similarly in originals and translations. This book addresses exactly these questions.
Author: Charlotte Bosseaux
Narratology is concerned with the study of narratives; but surprisingly it does not usually distinguish between original and translated texts. This lack of distinction is regrettable. In recent years the visibility of translations and translators has become a widely discussed topic in Translation Studies; yet the issue of translating a novel s point of view has remained relatively unexplored. It seems crucial to ask how far a translator s choices affect the novel s point of view, and whether characters or narrators come across similarly in originals and translations. This book addresses exactly these questions. It proposes a method by which it becomes possible to investigate how the point of view of a work of fiction is created in an original and adapted in translation. It shows that there are potential problems involved in the translation of linguistic features that constitute point of view (deixis, modality, transitivity and free indirect discourse) and that this has an impact on the way works are translated. Traditionally, comparative analysis of originals and their translations have relied on manual examinations; this book demonstrates that corpus-based tools can greatly facilitate and sharpen the process of comparison. The method is demonstrated using Virginia Woolf s "To The Lighthouse" (1927) and "The Waves" (1931), and their French translations."
In other words, the transitivity of translation is inherent to this method, and so we
don't have to do anything special to incorporate it. There is a problem with this
approach. The computational complexity of the trilingual version of the dynamic ...
Author: Jean Véronis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
l This book evolved from the ARCADE evaluation exercise that started in 1995. The project's goal is to evaluate alignment systems for parallel texts, i. e. , texts accompanied by their translation. Thirteen teams from various places around the world have participated so far and for the first time, some ten to fifteen years after the first alignment techniques were designed, the community has been able to get a clear picture of the behaviour of alignment systems. Several chapters in this book describe the details of competing systems, and the last chapter is devoted to the description of the evaluation protocol and results. The remaining chapters were especially commissioned from researchers who have been major figures in the field in recent years, in an attempt to address a wide range of topics that describe the state of the art in parallel text processing and use. As I recalled in the introduction, the Rosetta stone won eternal fame as the prototype of parallel texts, but such texts are probably almost as old as the invention of writing. Nowadays, parallel texts are electronic, and they are be coming an increasingly important resource for building the natural language processing tools needed in the "multilingual information society" that is cur rently emerging at an incredible speed. Applications are numerous, and they are expanding every day: multilingual lexicography and terminology, machine and human translation, cross-language information retrieval, language learning, etc.
materials in Chamorro.' She did most of the transcribing. Jovita Masiwemai, age
35, was a second grade teacher in Chalan Laulau. She worked with me on
translations only. Frank Demapan taught math and English at the Junior High
Author: Ann M. Cooreman
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
The series is a platform for contributions of all kinds to this rapidly developing field. General problems are studied from the perspective of individual languages, language families, language groups, or language samples. Conclusions are the result of a deepened study of empirical data. Special emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose analysis may shed new light on long-standing problems in general linguistics.
Finally, the study demonstrates that the generalisation that guides the changes in voice demands morphological differentiation of the anticausative from the passive types.
Author: Nikolaos Lavidas
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Τhis book offers a new approach to the theory of change in argument structure and voice morphology. It investigates the diachrony of transitivity, and especially the changes in causative verbs and transitivity alternations, based on data mainly from the Greek and English diachrony (all historical data are transcribed and accompanied by glosses and translations into Modern English). Data from earlier periods provide new information on burning questions in both Historical and Theoretical Linguistics. The study shows that (a) causativisations are the result of reanalysis of intransitive verbs as transitive on the basis of the linguistic cue of Case; (b) the changes in voice morphology do not depend on the derivation and direction of new transitivity alternations. Finally, the study demonstrates that the generalisation that guides the changes in voice demands morphological differentiation of the anticausative from the passive types.
Chapter 30 Mixed Tangentially Transitive Planes 30.1 Introduction When we
studied tangentially transitive translation planes , it was shown that either the
plane has order 16 or the plane is always derivable and the derived plane is a
Author: Mauro Biliotti
Publisher: CRC Press
An exploration of the construction and analysis of translation planes to spreads, partial spreads, co-ordinate structures, automorphisms, autotopisms, and collineation groups. It emphasizes the manipulation of incidence structures by various co-ordinate systems, including quasisets, spreads and matrix spreadsets. The volume showcases methods of structure theory as well as tools and techniques for the construction of new planes.
TRANSITIVE. TRANSLATION. AMBIGUITY. Further analysis reveals that even
manual translations introduce ambiguity. ... This suggests that ambiguity will have
an even greater negative effect on transitive translations than on bilingual ...
Author: W. Bruce Croft
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval (CIIR) was formed in the Computer Science Department ofthe University ofMassachusetts, Amherst in 1992. The core support for the Center came from a National Science Foun- tion State/Industry/University Cooperative Research Center(S/IUCRC) grant, although there had been a sizeable information retrieval (IR) research group for over 10 years prior to that grant. Thebasic goal ofthese Centers is to combine basic research, applied research, and technology transfer. The CIIR has been successful in each of these areas, in that it has produced over 270 research papers, has been involved in many successful government and industry collaborations, and has had a significant role in high-visibility Internet sites and start-ups. As a result of these efforts, the CIIR has become known internationally as one of the leading research groups in the area of information retrieval. The CIIR focuses on research that results in more effective and efficient access and discovery in large, heterogeneous, distributed, text and multimedia databases. The scope of the work that is done in the CIIR is broad and goes significantly beyond “traditional” areas of information retrieval such as retrieval models, cross-lingual search, and automatic query expansion. The research includes both low-level systems issues such as the design of protocols and architectures for distributed search, as well as more human-centered topics such as user interface design, visualization and data mining with text, and multimedia retrieval.
Such an approach is called transitive translation. Several studies have been
carried out to test the effectiveness ofsuch an approach. Kishida and Kando (
2005) examined the German–French translation via English as pivot language.
Author: Jian-Yun Nie
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Search for information is no longer exclusively limited within the native language of the user, but is more and more extended to other languages. This gives rise to the problem of cross-language information retrieval (CLIR), whose goal is to find relevant information written in a different language to a query. In addition to the problems of monolingual information retrieval (IR), translation is the key problem in CLIR: one should translate either the query or the documents from a language to another. However, this translation problem is not identical to full-text machine translation (MT): the goal is not to produce a human-readable translation, but a translation suitable for finding relevant documents. Specific translation methods are thus required. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive description of the specific problems arising in CLIR, the solutions proposed in this area, as well as the remaining problems. The book starts with a general description of the monolingual IR and CLIR problems. Different classes of approaches to translation are then presented: approaches using an MT system, dictionary-based translation and approaches based on parallel and comparable corpora. In addition, the typical retrieval effectiveness using different approaches is compared. It will be shown that translation approaches specifically designed for CLIR can rival and outperform high-quality MT systems. Finally, the book offers a look into the future that draws a strong parallel between query expansion in monolingual IR and query translation in CLIR, suggesting that many approaches developed in monolingual IR can be adapted to CLIR. The book can be used as an introduction to CLIR. Advanced readers can also find more technical details and discussions about the remaining research challenges in the future. It is suitable to new researchers who intend to carry out research on CLIR. Table of Contents: Preface / Introduction / Using Manually Constructed Translation Systems and Resources for CLIR / Translation Based on Parallel and Comparable Corpora / Other Methods to Improve CLIR / A Look into the Future: Toward a Unified View of Monolingual IR and CLIR? / References / Author Biography
We chose to translate an Indonesian query set into English using machine
translation, transitive translation, and parallel corpus-based techniques. We also
made an attempt to improve the retrieval effectiveness using a query expansion ...
Author: Cross-Language Evaluation Forum. Workshop
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The eighth campaign of the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) for - ropean languages was held from January to September 2007. There were seven distinct evaluation tracks in CLEF 2007, designed to test the performance of a wide range of multilingual information access systems or system components. CLEF is by now an established international evaluation initiative and, in 2007, 81 groups from all over the world submitted results for one or more of the di?erent evaluation tracks. Full details regarding the design of the tracks, the methodologies used for evaluation, and the results obtained by the participants can be found in the di?erent sections of these proceedings. As always the results of the campaign were reported and discussed at the annual workshop, held in Budapest, Hungary, 19-21 September, immediately following the eleventh European Conference on Digital Libraries. The workshop playsanimportantrolebyprovidingtheopportunityforallthe groupsthathave participated in the evaluation campaign to get together to compare approaches and exchange ideas.
This book is for students of translation, languages and linguistics who would like to enhance their understanding of the relationships between these areas of study.
Author: Kirsten Malmkjær
This book is for students of translation, languages and linguistics who would like to enhance their understanding of the relationships between these areas of study. The book uses explanation, discussion and practice to make explicit the forms of knowledge of language and of translation that makes translators successful. Chapters on the development of translation studies in the west and on contemporary approaches to translation provide the disciplinary context within which the processes and products of translating are studied. The theoretical and academic context for the chapters in which application is focal is provided by the book's flexible and forward-looking approach to meaning and translation. Meaning is seen as a temporary relationship between participants in language events and translation as a creative activity that contributes to such events. From this position, interaction between language study, linguistics and translation studies is seen as mutually enriching.Five practical chapters cover sounds and rhythms, lexis, collocation and semantic prosody, texture, register, cohesion, coherence, implicature, speech and text acts, text and genre analysis, clausal thematicity and transitivity and the expression through language choices of ideological positions.Features:* Each chapter provides examples for analysis and translating practice based on a variety of text types, including poems, prose, drama, newspaper and journal articles, promotional materials and texts for tourists.* Examples are drawn mainly from Danish, English, French, German, Italian and Spanish, but most practice sections can be used for analysis and translation into any language from English* The book can be used at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.