Transcendental Arguments and ScienceTranscendental Arguments and Science



would have to be parasitic on the use of C; and then for C** a fresh argument would be needed, and so on. ... RELEVANCE TO THE FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENCE Of the two answers which transcendental arguments can give to sceptical inquiries, ...

Author: P. Bieri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400994102

Category:

Page: 326

View: 838

The goal of the present volume is to discuss the notion of a 'conceptual framework' or 'conceptual scheme', which has been dominating much work in the analysis and justification of knowledge in recent years. More specifi cally, this volume is designed to clarify the contrast between two competing approaches in the area of problems indicated by this notion: On the one hand, we have the conviction, underlying much present-day work in the philosophy of science, that the best we can hope for in the justifi cation of empirical knowledge is to reconstruct the conceptual means actually employed by science, and to develop suitable models for analyzing conceptual change involved in the progress of science. This view involves the assumption that we should stop taking foundational questions of epistemology seriously and discard once and for all the quest for uncontrovertible truth. The result ing program of justifying epistemic claims by subsequently describing patterns of inferentially connected concepts as they are at work in actual science is closely connected with the idea of naturalizing epistemology, with concep tual relativism, and with a pragmatic interpretation of knowledge. On the other hand, recent epistemology tends to claim that no subsequent reconstruction of actually employed conceptual frameworks is sufficient for providing epistemic justification for our beliefs about the world. This second claim tries to resist the naturalistic and pragmatic approach to epistemology and insists on taking the epistemological sceptic seriously.

Transcendental Arguments and Justified Christian BeliefTranscendental Arguments and Justified Christian Belief



Richard Rorty , “ Transcendental Arguments , Self - Reference , and Pragmatism , " in Transcendental Arguments and Science : Essays in Epistemology , eds . Peter Bieri , Rolf - P . Horstmann , and Lorenz Krüger ( Dordrecht : D. Re : del ...

Author: Ronney Mourad

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761830324

Category:

Page: 176

View: 196

Transcendental Arguments and Justified Christian Belief offers an extended discussion of the characteristics of transcendental arguments and the philosophical objections that have been leveled against them. Author Ronney Mourad provides a comprehensive review of the recent philosophical literature concerning the definition and possibility of transcendental arguments and defends original positions on these issues. One function of transcendental arguments is to identify beliefs or propositions implied by any possible act of assertion. Anyone who denies the conclusions of a sound transcendental argument, defined in this way, simultaneously implies the truth of those conclusions by asserting the denial. Therefore, a sound transcendental argument produces conclusions that are distinctively universal and resistant to criticism. This book also applies transcendental argumentation to epistemological questions in Christian theology. Can Christians justify their religious beliefs? Do they even need to try? The work of Karl-Otto Apel and Franklin Gamwell serves as the starting point for the development of a transcendentally grounded conception of epistemic justification. The final chapters argue, in conversation with Schubert Ogden and Alvin Plantinga, that the obligations of epistemic justification revealed by transcendental arguments bear several implications for theological method.

Transcendental Arguments in Moral TheoryTranscendental Arguments in Moral Theory



According to this reading, Kant supposes that humans do (perform) science, as physics, mathematics, and even biology. “Doing science” is presupposed in Kant's transcendental reasoning.1 If so, the question occurs: Under which enabling ...

Author: Jens Peter Brune

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110470215

Category:

Page: 364

View: 560

Since Barry Stroud's classic paper in 1968, the general discussion on transcendental arguments tends to focus on examples from theoretical philosophy. It also tends to be pessimistic, or at least extremely reluctant, about the potential of this kind of arguments. Nevertheless, transcendental reasoning continues to play a prominent role in some recent approaches to moral philosophy. Moreover, some authors argue that transcendental arguments may be more promising in moral philosophy than they are in theoretical contexts. Against this background, the current volume focuses on transcendental arguments in practical philosophy. Experts from different countries and branches of philosophy share their views about whether there are actually differences between “theoretical” and “practical” uses of transcendental arguments. They examine and compare different versions of transcendental arguments in moral philosophy, explain their structure, and assess their respective problems and promises. This book offers all those interested in ethics, meta-ethics, or epistemology a more comprehensive understanding of transcendental arguments. It also provides them with new insights into uses of transcendental reasoning in moral philosophy.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social SciencesEncyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences



Transcendental Arguments in the Philosophy of Science Philosophers of science have only rarely explicitly employed transcendental arguments, but most key positions in 20th-century philosophy of science rely on Kantian assumptions.

Author: Byron Kaldis

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781412986892

Category:

Page: 1195

View: 239

"This encyclopedia, magnificently edited by Byron Kaldis, will become a valuable source both of reference and inspiration for all those who are interested in the interrelation between philosophy and the many facets of the social sciences. A must read for every student of the humanities."--Wulf Gaertner, University of Osnabrueck, Germany "Byron Kaldis' Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences is a triumph. The entries are consistently good, the coverage is amazing, and he has managed to involve the whole scholarly community in this field. It shows off the field very well, and will be a magnificent resource for students and others." -- Stephen Turner, USF, USA “ Like all good works of reference this Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences is not to be treated passively: it provides clear and sometimes controversial material for constructive confrontation. It is a rich resource for critical engagement. The Encyclopedia conceived and edited by Byron Kaldis is a work of impressive scope and I am delighted to have it on my bookshelf.”-- David Bloor, Edinburgh, UK "This splendid and possibly unique work steers a skilful course between narrower conceptions of philosophy and the social sciences. It will be an invaluable resource for students and researchers in either or both fields, and to anyone working on the interrelations between them." -- William Outhwaite, Newcastle, UK "A work of vast scope and widely gathered expertise, the Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences is a splendid resource for anyone interested in the interface between philosophy and the social sciences." --Nicholas Rescher, Pittsburgh This encyclopedia is the first of its kind in bringing together philosophy and the social sciences. It is not only about the philosophy of the social sciences but, going beyond that, it is also about the relationship between philosophy and the social sciences. The subject of this encyclopedia is purposefully multi- and inter-disciplinary. Knowledge boundaries are both delineated and crossed over. The goal is to convey a clear sense of how philosophy looks at the social sciences and to mark out a detailed picture of how the two are interrelated: interwoven at certain times but also differentiated and contrasted at others. The Entries cover topics of central significance but also those that are both controversial and on the cutting-edge, underlining the unique mark of this Encyclopedia: the interrelationship between philosophy and the social sciences, especially as it is found in fresh ideas and unprecedented hybrid disciplinary areas. The Encyclopedia serves a further dual purpose: it contributes to the renewal of the philosophy of the social sciences and helps to promote novel modes of thinking about some of its classic problems. “The Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences edited by Byron Kaldis, provides a unique, needed, and invaluable resource for researchers at every level. Unique because nothing else offers the breadth of coverage found in this work; needed because it permits researchers to find longer but also relatively brief, clear, but nonetheless expert articles introducing important topics; and invaluable because of the guidance offered to both related topics and further study. It should be the place that any interested person looks first when seeking to learn about philosophy and the social sciences.” Paul Roth, UC Santa Cruz, USA “The Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences edited by Byron Kaldis covers an enormous range of topics in philosophy and the social sciences and the entries are compact overviews of the essential issues” Harold Kincaid, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA

Transcendental Arguments and ScienceTranscendental Arguments and Science



More specifi cally, this volume is designed to clarify the contrast between two competing approaches in the area of problems indicated by this notion: On the one hand, we have the conviction, underlying much present-day work in the ...

Author: P. Bieri

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9027709645

Category:

Page: 326

View: 647

The goal of the present volume is to discuss the notion of a 'conceptual framework' or 'conceptual scheme', which has been dominating much work in the analysis and justification of knowledge in recent years. More specifi cally, this volume is designed to clarify the contrast between two competing approaches in the area of problems indicated by this notion: On the one hand, we have the conviction, underlying much present-day work in the philosophy of science, that the best we can hope for in the justifi cation of empirical knowledge is to reconstruct the conceptual means actually employed by science, and to develop suitable models for analyzing conceptual change involved in the progress of science. This view involves the assumption that we should stop taking foundational questions of epistemology seriously and discard once and for all the quest for uncontrovertible truth. The result ing program of justifying epistemic claims by subsequently describing patterns of inferentially connected concepts as they are at work in actual science is closely connected with the idea of naturalizing epistemology, with concep tual relativism, and with a pragmatic interpretation of knowledge. On the other hand, recent epistemology tends to claim that no subsequent reconstruction of actually employed conceptual frameworks is sufficient for providing epistemic justification for our beliefs about the world. This second claim tries to resist the naturalistic and pragmatic approach to epistemology and insists on taking the epistemological sceptic seriously.

Constructivism and ScienceConstructivism and Science



On Rorty's Account of Transcendental Strategies”, in Transcendental Arguments and Science [see Note 1], pp. 113–120, here p. 115). * For a critical account cf. K. Lorenz, “The Concept of Science. Some Remarks on the Methodological Issue ...

Author: Robert E. Butts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400909595

Category:

Page: 304

View: 194

The idea to produce the current volume was conceived by Jiirgen Mittelstrass and Robert E. Butts in 1978. Idealist philosophers are wrong about one thing: the temporal gap separating idea and reality can be very long indeed - even ten or so years! Problems of timing were joined by personal problems and by the pressure of other professional commitments. Fortunately, James Brown agreed to cooperate in the editing of the volume; the infusion of his usual energy, good judgement and good-natured promptness saved the volume and made its produc tion possible. Despite the delays, the messages of the papers included in the book have not gone stale. An extremely worthwhile exercise in international philosophical cooperation has come to fruition; the German constructivist philosophical position is here represented in papers in English that will make its contemporary importance available to a larger audience. The editors owe thanks to many persons. All involved in the project owe much to the interest and support of Nicholas Rescher, a friend of the undertaking from the time of its inception. My review of the translations was helped immensely by Andrea Purvis' careful copy editing of the typescript. Most of all, however, we owe gratitude and admiration for the tireless efforts on behalf of this enterprise to Jiirgen Mittelstrass.

Kant and the MindKant and the Mind



In addition , Kant's central methodological innovation , the method of transcendental argument , has become a major , perhaps the major , method of cognitive science . One way to describe the role of transcendental arguments is to say ...

Author: Andrew Brook

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521574412

Category:

Page: 348

View: 257

A comprehensive overview of Kant's discoveries about the mind for non-specialists.

Engaging ScienceEngaging Science



Along with Okrent, I believe these are transcendental arguments. In their most familiar form, such arguments display necessary conditions for the possibility of a given capacity (for example, experience of objects, intentionality, ...

Author: Joseph Rouse

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9781501718625

Category:

Page: 280

View: 756

Summarizing this century's major debates over realism and the rationality of scientific knowledge, Joseph Rouse believes that these disputes oversimplify the political and cultural significance of the sciences. He provides an alternative understanding of science that focuses on practices rather than knowledge. Rouse first outlines the shared assumptions by ostensibly opposed interpretive stances toward science: scientific realism, social constructivism, empiricism, and postempiricist historical rationalism. He then advances cultural studies as an alternative approach, one that understands the sciences as ongoing patterns of situated activity whose material setting is part of practice. Cultural studies of science, the author suggests, take seriously their own participation in and engagement with the culture of science, rejecting the purported detachment of earlier philosophical or sociological standpoints. Rather, such studies offer specific, critical discussions of how and why science matters, and to whom, and how opportunites for meaningful understanding and action are transformed by scientific practices.

Kant and the Claims of KnowledgeKant and the Claims of Knowledge



What Paton fails to note is that Kant's argument in 1787 and after is that we must employ the two admittedly dependent forms ... Among these the reader might look at Transcendental Arguments and Science : Essays in Epistemology , ed .

Author: Paul Guyer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521337720

Category:

Page: 504

View: 443

This book offers a radically new account of the development and structure of the central arguments of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: the defense of the objective validity of such categories as substance, causation, and independent existence. Paul Guyer makes far more extensive use than any other commentator of historical materials from the years leading up to the publication of the Critique and surrounding its revision, and he shows that the work which has come down to us is the result of some striking and only partially resolved theoretical tensions. Kant had originally intended to demonstrate the validity of the categories by exploiting what he called 'analogies of appearance' between the structure of self-knowledge and our knowledge of objects. The idea of a separate 'transcendental deduction', independent from the analysis of the necessary conditions of empirical judgements, arose only shortly before publication of the Critique in 1781, and distorted much of Kant's original inspiration. Part of what led Kant to present this deduction separately was his invention of a new pattern of argument - very different from the 'transcendental arguments' attributed by recent interpreters to Kant - depending on initial claims to necessary truth.

Transcendental ArgumentsTranscendental Arguments



Argumentation : Approaches to Theory Formation ( Amsterdam : Benjamins , 1982 ) : 77-91 . Parvu , Ilie , ' Arguments Transcendentaux dans la science contemporaine ' ( in Romanian ) , Rev. Filozof . 29 ( 1982 ) : 35-40 .

Author: Robert Stern

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199261563

Category:

Page: 348

View: 428

A distinguished team of philosophers offer a broad and stimulating examination of the nature, role and value of transcendental arguments, in interrelated essays specially written for this volume.