The Story of Helium and the Birth of AstrophysicsThe Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics



The actual story turns out to be as dramatic as in fiction. This book tells the story without jargon, using the words of the scientists themselves (from their letters and reports), and rescues the real story from the backwaters of history.

Author: Biman B. Nath

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461453635

Category:

Page: 274

View: 568

What if one of the most thrilling stories in the history of science turned out to be wrong? Can urban legends creep into the hallowed grounds of scientific history? As incredible as it may sound, the story of one of the most important elements in modern times – helium - has been often misrepresented in books, encyclopedias, and online sources, despite the fact that archival materials tell a different story. Open the entry for Helium in any encyclopaedia and you will read a false story that has been repeated over the years. ‘Encyclopaedia Britannica’, for example, says that helium was discovered by the French astronomer Pierre Janssen while observing a total solar eclipse from India in 1868. Apparently he noticed something new in the spectrum of the sun, which he thought was the signature of an undiscovered element. The truth is that Janssen never saw any sign of a new element during his observations in India. His reports and letters do not mention any such claim. Other sources would have you believe that helium was jointly discovered by Janssen and Norman Lockyer, a British scientist, and that their discovery letters reached Paris the same day, one sent from India, and the other from England. Again, the truth is completely different. Two letters from Lockyer and Janssen did reach Paris the same day in 1868, but their letters did not mention any new element. What they had discovered was a new way of observing the Sun without a solar eclipse. This would ultimately lead to the discovery of helium, in which Lockyer would play a prominent role, but not Janssen. At the same time, Norman Robert Pogson, a disgruntled British astronomer stationed in India did notice something peculiar during the eclipse. He was the first one to notice something odd about the spectrum of the Sun that day, and his observations would prove crucial to Lockyer’s own investigations of helium. But Pogson’s report was never published in any peer reviewed journal and it languished on the desk of a local British officer in colonial India. This book tells the real story behind the discovery of helium, along with biographical sketches of the scientists and descriptions of the milieu in which they worked. It will convey the excitement, confusion, and passion of nineteenth century scientists, using their own words, from their letters and reports. “The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics” chronicles one of the most exciting discoveries ever made and explains why it also marked the birth of a new branch of science called ‘astrophysics.’

The Emergence of Astrophysics in AsiaThe Emergence of Astrophysics in Asia



(2017) in this book. ... his book The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics Nath (2013) is correct in not giving Rayet credit for this discovery.

Author: Tsuko Nakamura

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319620824

Category:

Page: 878

View: 409

This book examines the ways in which attitudes toward astronomy in Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Taiwan, Thailand and Uzbekistan have changed with the times. The emergence of astrophysics was a worldwide phenomenon during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and it gradually replaced the older-style positional astronomy, which focused on locating and measuring the movements of the planets, stars, etc.. Here you will find national overviews that are at times followed by case studies of individual notable achievements. Although the emphasis is on the developments that occurred around 1900, later pioneering efforts in Australian, Chinese, Indian and Japanese radio astronomy are also included. As the first book ever published on the early development of astrophysics in Asia, the authors fill a chronological and technological void. Though others have already written about earlier astronomical developments in Asia, and about the recent history of astronomy in various Asian nations, no one has examined the emergence of astrophysics, the so-called ‘new astronomy’ in Asia during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Exploring the History of Southeast Asian AstronomyExploring the History of Southeast Asian Astronomy



The Emergence of Astrophysics in Asia: Opening a New Window on the Universe. Springer International Publishing. Nath, B.B., 2013. The Story of Helium and ...

Author: Wayne Orchiston

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030627775

Category:

Page: 802

View: 749

This edited volume contains 24 different research papers by members of the History and Heritage Working Group of the Southeast Asian Astronomy Network. The chapters were prepared by astronomers from Australia, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Scotland, Sweden, Thailand and Vietnam. They represent the latest understanding of cultural and scientific interchange in the region over time, from ethnoastronomy to archaeoastronomy and more. Gathering together researchers from various locales, this volume enabled new connections to be made in service of building a more holistic vision of astronomical history in Southeast Asia, which boasts a proud and deep tradition.

Exploring the History of New Zealand AstronomyExploring the History of New Zealand Astronomy



The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics. New York: Springer. Nelson Evening Mail. September 16, 1885 (p. 2). Orchiston, W. (1985).

Author: Wayne Orchiston

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319225661

Category:

Page: 688

View: 171

Dr. Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material. The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging field of radio astronomy during WWII and in the immediate post-war years. A complete survey of a neglected but rich national astronomical history, this does the subject full and comprehensive justice.

Nearest StarNearest Star



Hirsh, Richard F., Glimpsing an Invisible Universe: The Emergence of X-Ray Astronomy ... Nath, Biman, The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics ...

Author: Leon Golub

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107052659

Category:

Page: 330

View: 474

An authoritative and readable introduction to the Sun, our nearest star, from two experienced astronomers, for general science readers.

Constructing Quantum MechanicsConstructing Quantum Mechanics



The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics . New York : Springer . Nauenberg , Michael . 2016. “ Max Planck and the Birth of the Quantum Hypothesis .

Author: Anthony Duncan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192584229

Category:

Page: 560

View: 917

Constructing Quantum Mechanics is the first of two volumes on the genesis of quantum mechanics. This volume traces the early contributions by Planck, Einstein, and Bohr, all showing the need for drastic changes to the physics of their day. It examines the efforts by Sommerfeld and others to develop a new theory, now known as the old quantum theory. After some striking successes, this theory ran into serious difficulties and ended up serving as the scaffold on which the arch of modern quantum mechanics was built. This volume breaks new ground, both in its treatment of the work of Sommerfeld and his associates, and by offering new perspectives on classic papers by Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and others. Paying close attention to both primary and secondary sources, Constructing Quantum Mechanics provides an in-depth analysis of the heroic struggle to come to terms with the wealth of mostly spectroscopic data that eventually gave us modern quantum mechanics.

Mask of the Sun The Science History and Forgotten Lore of EclipsesMask of the Sun The Science History and Forgotten Lore of Eclipses



Nath, Biman B. The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics. New York: Springer, 2013. Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim. “The social event of the season: solar ...

Author: John Dvorak

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781681773858

Category:

Page: 336

View: 259

They have been thought of as harbingers of evil as well as a sign of the divine. Eclipses—one of the rarest and most stunning celestial events we can witness here on Earth—have shaped the course of human history and thought since humans first turned their eyes to the sky. What do Virginia Woolf, the rotation of hurricanes, Babylonian kings and Einstein’s General Theory Relativity all have in common? Eclipses. Always spectacular and, today, precisely predicable, eclipses have allowed us to know when the first Olympic games were played and, long before the first space probe, that the Moon was covered by dust. Eclipses have stunned, frightened, emboldened and mesmerized people for thousands of years. They were recorded on ancient turtle shells discovered in the Wastes of Yin in China, on clay tablets from Mesopotamia and on the Mayan “Dresden Codex." They are mentioned in Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and at least eight times in the Bible. Columbus used them to trick people, while Renaissance painter Taddeo Gaddi was blinded by one. Sorcery was banished within the Catholic Church after astrologers used an eclipse to predict a pope’s death. In Mask of the Sun, acclaimed writer John Dvorak the importance of the number 177 and why the ancient Romans thought it was bad to have sexual intercourse during an eclipse (whereas other cultures thought it would be good luck). Even today, pregnant women in Mexico wear safety pins on their underwear during an eclipse. Eclipses are an amazing phenomena—unique to Earth—that have provided the key to much of what we now know and understand about the sun, our moon, gravity, and the workings of the universe. Both entertaining and authoritative, Mask of the Sun reveals the humanism behind the science of both lunar and solar eclipses. With insightful detail and vividly accessible prose, Dvorak provides explanations as to how and why eclipses occur—as well as insight into the forthcoming eclipse of 2017 that will be visible across North America.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Modern CosmologyThe Oxford Handbook of the History of Modern Cosmology



The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics. New York: Springer. Nazaretyan, A. P. (2005). Big (universal) history paradigm: versions and approaches, ...

Author: Helge Kragh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192549976

Category:

Page: 560

View: 946

Scientific and popular literature on modern cosmology is very extensive; however, scholarly works on the historical development of cosmology are few and scattered. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Modern Cosmology offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of the history of cosmology from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. It provides historical background to what we know about the universe today, including not only the successes but also the many false starts. Big Bang theory features prominently, but so does the defunct steady state theory. The book starts with a chapter on the pre-Einstein period (1860-1910) and ends with chapters on modern developments such as inflation, dark energy and multiverse hypotheses. The chapters are organized chronologically, with some focusing on theory and others more on observations and technological advances. A few of the chapters discuss more general ideas, relating to larger contexts such as politics, economy, philosophy and world views.

No Shadow of a DoubtNo Shadow of a Doubt



The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics. New York: Springer-Verlag. Nicol, Stuart. 2001. McQueen's Legacy Vol. 2: Ships of the Royal Mail Line.

Author: Daniel J Kennefick

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691183862

Category:

Page: 416

View: 777

On their 100th anniversary, the story of the extraordinary scientific expeditions that ushered in the era of relativity In 1919, British scientists led extraordinary expeditions to Brazil and Africa to test Albert Einstein’s revolutionary new theory of general relativity in what became the century’s most celebrated scientific experiment. The result ushered in a new era and made Einstein a global celebrity by confirming his dramatic prediction that the path of light rays would be bent by gravity. Today, Einstein’s theory is scientific fact. Yet the effort to “weigh light” by measuring the gravitational deflection of starlight during the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse has become clouded by myth and skepticism. Could Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson have gotten the results they claimed? Did the pacifist Eddington falsify evidence to foster peace after a horrific war by validating the theory of a German antiwar campaigner? In No Shadow of a Doubt, Daniel Kennefick provides definitive answers by offering the most comprehensive and authoritative account of how expedition scientists overcame war, bad weather, and equipment problems to make the experiment a triumphant success. The reader follows Eddington on his voyage to Africa through his letters home, and delves with Dyson into how the complex experiment was accomplished, through his notes. Other characters include Howard Grubb, the brilliant Irishman who made the instruments; William Campbell, the American astronomer who confirmed the result; and Erwin Findlay-Freundlich, the German whose attempts to perform the test in Crimea were foiled by clouds and his arrest. By chronicling the expeditions and their enormous impact in greater detail than ever before, No Shadow of a Doubt reveals a story that is even richer and more exciting than previously known.

American Eclipse A Nation s Epic Race to Catch the Shadow of the Moon and Win the Glory of the WorldAmerican Eclipse A Nation s Epic Race to Catch the Shadow of the Moon and Win the Glory of the World



The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics. New York: Springer. National Academy of Sciences. 1909. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for ...

Author: David Baron

Publisher: Liveright Publishing

ISBN: 9781631490170

Category:

Page: 384

View: 652

This “suspenseful narrative history” (Maureen Corrigan, NPR) brings to life the momentous eclipse that enthralled a nation and thrust American science onto the world stage. On a scorching July afternoon in 1878, at the dawn of the Gilded Age, the moon’s shadow descended on the American West, darkening skies from Montana Territory to Texas. This rare celestial event—a total solar eclipse—offered a priceless opportunity to solve some of the solar system’s most enduring riddles, and it prompted a clutch of enterprising scientists to brave the wild frontier in a grueling race to the Rocky Mountains. Acclaimed science journalist David Baron, long fascinated by eclipses, re-creates this epic tale of ambition, failure, and glory in a narrative that reveals as much about the historical trajectory of a striving young nation as it does about those scant three minutes when the blue sky blackened and stars appeared in mid-afternoon. Lauded as a “sweeping, compelling” (Wall Street Journal) work of science history, American Eclipse tells the story of the three tenacious and brilliant scientists who raced to Wyoming and Colorado to observe the rare event. Dedicating years of “exhaustive research to reconstruct a remarkable chapter of U.S. history” (Scientific American), award-winning writer David Baron brings to three-dimensional life these competitors—the planet-hunter James Craig Watson, pioneering astronomer Maria Mitchell, and the ambitious young inventor Thomas Edison—to thrillingly re-create the fierce jockeying of nineteenth-century American astronomy. With spellbinding accounts of train robberies and Indian skirmishes, the mythologized age of the Wild West comes alive as never before. An “enthralling” (Daniel Kevles) and magnificent portrayal of America’s dawn as a scientific superpower, American Eclipse depicts a young nation that looked to the skies to reveal its towering ambition and expose its latent genius.

The Growth and Development of Astronomy and Astrophysics in India and the Asia Pacific RegionThe Growth and Development of Astronomy and Astrophysics in India and the Asia Pacific Region



The development of modern astronomy and emergence of astrophysics in India. In Nakamura and Orchiston ... The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics.

Author: Wayne Orchiston

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811336454

Category:

Page: 527

View: 574

This book discusses the study of astronomy in different cultures, applied historical astronomy and history of multi-wavelength astronomy, and the genesis of recent research. It contains peer-reviewed papers gathered from the International Conference on Oriental Astronomy 9 (ICOA-9) held at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, India. It covers the areas like megalithic and other prehistoric astronomy, astronomical records in ancient texts, astronomical myths and architecture, astronomical themes in numismatics and rock art, ancient astronomers and their instruments, star maps and star catalogues, historical records and observations of astronomical events, calendars, calendrical science and chronology, the relation between astronomy and mathematics, and maritime astronomy. This book will be a valuable complement to a future generation of students and researchers who develop an interest in the field of Asian and circum-Pacific history of astronomy.

Eclipses Transits and Comets of the Nineteenth CenturyEclipses Transits and Comets of the Nineteenth Century



The story of helium and the birth of astrophysics. New York: Springer. National Archives. [Responses to circular of instruction issued November 28, ...

Author: Stella Cottam

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319083414

Category:

Page: 336

View: 974

Grabbing the attention of poets, politicians and the general public alike, a series of spectacular astronomical events in the late 1800s galvanized Americans to take a greater interest in astronomy than ever before. At a time when the sciences were not yet as well established in the United States as they were in Europe, this public interest and support provided the growing scientific community in the United States with the platform they needed to advance the field of astronomy in the United States. Earlier in the 19th century comets, meteors and the discovery of the planet Neptune were all sources of inspiration to the general public. The specific events to be considered here are the total solar eclipses of 1868, 1869 and 1878 and the transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882. The available media responded to public interest as well as generating more interest. These events laid the groundwork that led to today's thriving network of American amateur astronomers and provide a fascinating look at earlier conceptions of the stars.

Find a Hotter Place Find a Hotter Place



This is a story which began in Greek Antiquity, with the first musings on the nature of matter and the void, and continues today with ever more refined analyses involving virtually every aspect of 20th century physics, astronomy, cosmology ...

Author: Ludwik M Celnikier

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814338202

Category:

Page: 212

View: 498

"Find a hotter place!" is the insightful story of the tortured path that led to our current understanding of how the elements in the Universe came to be. This is a story which began in Greek Antiquity, with the first musings on the nature of matter and the void, and continues today with ever more refined analyses involving virtually every aspect of 20th century physics, astronomy, cosmology and information technology. Identifying the source of stellar energy, probing the earliest instants of the Universe, and discovering of how and where each element was made are some of the outstanding success stories of the 20th century, but have received little attention beyond the specialized literature. The year 2007 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of one of the key papers on stellar nucleosynthesis, universally referred to as the B2FH paper. This book is a timely survey of how a new discipline ? nuclear astrophysics ? was born, and how it has matured. Almost completely non-technical, the book remains scientifically rigorous, and thereby fills an important gap. Science is not a linear process, as the ill-named ?scientific method? might suggest to the unwary. The author emphasizes the meanders, the dead ends and the obsessive dogmas which have guided researchers through the 20th century. He also makes it clear that our understanding of where the elements come from has come through discoveries in diverse, not necessarily related, disciplines. Contents: The Vacuum, the Universe, and Things That Go ?Pop? in the NightEleven Quadrillion Six Hundred Thousand Billion Tonnes of Coal per SecondFin de SiŠcle, Fin du MondeA Mystery Wrapped in an EnigmaThe Rise of the New PhysicsThe Chicken and the EggThe Best of Times and the Worst of TimesA Tale of Two Theories and One DogmaRelics of a Bygone AgeCosmic Ash Readership: Students, academics, and the general public interested in the history of physics and astrophysics.

A Companion to Astronomy and AstrophysicsA Companion to Astronomy and Astrophysics



Some of these popular books, which include Sun, Earth and Sky, Wanderers in Space, the Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Sun and the Cambridge Guide to the Solar System, have been translated into seven languages.

Author: Kenneth R. Lang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387333670

Category:

Page: 376

View: 520

Astronomy and Astrophysics is a comprehensive, fundamental, and up-to-date reference book. It is filled with vital information and basic facts for amateur astronomers and professional astrophysicists, and for anyone interested in the Universe, from the Earth and other planets to the stars, galaxies and beyond. An exceptionally thorough Index cross-references concepts, discoveries and individuals in both the Timeline section and Dictionary section. The combined result is a unique stand-alone reference volume in which the reader can quickly locate information, while also discovering new and unexpected knowledge.

Through the Eyes of HubbleThrough the Eyes of Hubble



In Through the Eyes of Hubble: The Birth, Life and Violent Death of Stars, he uses 100 striking color images from the Hubble Space Telescope to illuminate the mind-stretching story of how stars are born, live, and die.

Author: R Naeye

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0750304847

Category:

Page: 344

View: 645

Robert Naeye is renowned for his lucid contributions to Astronomy, the world's biggest selling astronomy magazine. In Through the Eyes of Hubble: The Birth, Life and Violent Death of Stars, he uses 100 striking color images from the Hubble Space Telescope to illuminate the mind-stretching story of how stars are born, live, and die. Although focusing on astrophysics, the account is compelling, equation free, and accessible to everyone. In addition, there are eight beautiful paintings to appreciate, including works by the most famous living space artist, Michael Carroll.

Essential AstrophysicsEssential Astrophysics



This book takes a reader on a tour of astronomical phenomena: from the vastness of the interstellar medium, to the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems, through to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, the final ...

Author: Shantanu Basu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000455489

Category:

Page: 176

View: 809

This book takes a reader on a tour of astronomical phenomena: from the vastness of the interstellar medium, to the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems, through to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, the final objects of the stellar graveyard. At its heart, this book is a journey through the evolutionary history of the birth, life, and death of stars, but detours are also made to other related interesting topics. This highly accessible story of the observed contents of our Galaxy includes intuitive explanations, informative diagrams, and basic equations, as needed. It is an ideal guide for undergraduates with some physics and mathematics background who are studying astronomy and astrophysics. It is also accessible to interested laypeople, thanks to its limited equations. Key features: Includes coverage of some of the latest exciting research from the field, including star formation, exoplanets, and black holes Can be utilised as a stand-alone textbook for a one-term course or as a supplementary textbook for a more comprehensive course on astronomy and astrophysics Authored by a team respected for research, education, and outreach Shantanu Basu is an astrophysicist and a professor at The University of Western Ontario, Canada. He is known for research contributions on the formation of gravitationally-collapsed objects in the universe: stars, planets, brown dwarfs, and supermassive black holes. He is one of the originators of the migrating embryo scenario of episodic accretion onto young stars. He has been recognized for his teaching excellence and his contributions to the astronomical community include organizing many conferences and training schools. Pranav Sharma is an astronomer and science historian known for his work on the history of the Indian Space Program. He has curated the Space Museum at the B. M. Birla Science Centre (Hyderabad, India). He is in-charge of the history of Indo-French scientific partnership project supported by the Embassy of France in India. He is a national-award-winning science communicator and has extensively worked on the popularization of astronomy education in India.

Essential AstrophysicsEssential Astrophysics



This book takes a reader on a tour of astronomical phenomena: from the vastness of the interstellar medium, to the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems, through to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, the final ...

Author: Shantanu Basu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000455526

Category:

Page: 176

View: 804

This book takes a reader on a tour of astronomical phenomena: from the vastness of the interstellar medium, to the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems, through to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, the final objects of the stellar graveyard. At its heart, this book is a journey through the evolutionary history of the birth, life, and death of stars, but detours are also made to other related interesting topics. This highly accessible story of the observed contents of our Galaxy includes intuitive explanations, informative diagrams, and basic equations, as needed. It is an ideal guide for undergraduates with some physics and mathematics background who are studying astronomy and astrophysics. It is also accessible to interested laypeople, thanks to its limited equations. Key features: Includes coverage of some of the latest exciting research from the field, including star formation, exoplanets, and black holes Can be utilised as a stand-alone textbook for a one-term course or as a supplementary textbook for a more comprehensive course on astronomy and astrophysics Authored by a team respected for research, education, and outreach Shantanu Basu is an astrophysicist and a professor at The University of Western Ontario, Canada. He is known for research contributions on the formation of gravitationally-collapsed objects in the universe: stars, planets, brown dwarfs, and supermassive black holes. He is one of the originators of the migrating embryo scenario of episodic accretion onto young stars. He has been recognized for his teaching excellence and his contributions to the astronomical community include organizing many conferences and training schools. Pranav Sharma is an astronomer and science historian known for his work on the history of the Indian Space Program. He has curated the Space Museum at the B. M. Birla Science Centre (Hyderabad, India). He is in-charge of the history of Indo-French scientific partnership project supported by the Embassy of France in India. He is a national-award-winning science communicator and has extensively worked on the popularization of astronomy education in India.

From Black Clouds To Black Holes Third Edition From Black Clouds To Black Holes Third Edition



This book presents in a simple style the success story of modern astrophysics — how the application of known physics to models of stars can, together with the observational data, help us understand what stars are made of, how they live ...

Author: Narlikar Jayant V

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789813108172

Category:

Page: 216

View: 936

This book presents in a simple style the success story of modern astrophysics — how the application of known physics to models of stars can, together with the observational data, help us understand what stars are made of, how they live and how they die. The account is non-technical but scientifically accurate. It is interspersed with anecdotes and analogies to make the subject matter readable and understandable even to a lay reader with some basic scientific background.

The Life of StarsThe Life of Stars



In this book, we shall carefully expose the building of the theory of stellar structure and evolution, and explain how our understanding of the stars has emerged from this background of incessant debate.

Author: Giora Shaviv

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642020887

Category:

Page: 504

View: 558

It is the stars, The stars above us, govern our conditions. William Shakespeare, King Lear A Few Words about What, Why and How The structure of the stars in general, and the Sun in particular, has been the subject of extensivescienti?cresearchanddebateforoveracentury.Thediscoveryofquantum theoryduringthe?rsthalfofthenineteenthcenturyprovidedmuchofthetheoretical background needed to understand the making of the stars and how they live off their energysource. Progress in the theoryof stellar structurewasmade through extensive discussions and controversies between the giants of the ?elds, as well as brilliant discoveries by astronomers. In this book, we shall carefully expose the building of the theory of stellar structure and evolution, and explain how our understanding of the stars has emerged from this background of incessant debate. About hundred years were required for astrophysics to answer the crucial ques tions: What is the energy source of the stars? How are the stars made? How do they evolve and eventually die? The answers to these questions have profound im plications for astrophysics, physics, and biology, and the question of how we our selves come to be here. While we already possess many of the answers, the theory of stellar structure is far from being complete, and there are many open questions, for example, concerning the mechanisms which trigger giant supernova explosions. Many internal hydrodynamic processes remain a mystery. Yet some global pictures can indeed be outlined, and this is what we shall attempt to do here.