This is an indispensable reference source and training tool not only for kiln operators, but for supervisors and management staff as well.
Author: Kurt E. Peray
Publisher: California Historical Society
An indispensable reference source and training tool not only for kiln operators, but for supervisors and management staff as well. Extensive discussions on pre-heater and pre-calciner operations are included. The appendix includes a section with conversion tables, definitions of common terms relating to rotary kilns, and a suggested outline for a training program for new operators. Contents PART 1. KILN SYSTEMS AND THEORY 1. History 3 2. Types of Rotary Kilns 6 3. The Refractory 17 4. Fuels 37 5. Combustion 44 6. The Flame 63 7. Heat Transfer 83 8. Heat Balances 106 9. The Chemistry of Kiln Feed and Clinker 115 10. Reaction Zones in the Rotary Kiln 141 11. Coating and Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln 147 12. The Air Circuit in a Rotary Kiln 155 13. Movement of Material Through the Kiln 174 PART II. KILN OPERATING PROCEDURES 199 14. Kiln Operating and Control Methods 201 15. Instrumentation 207 16. Kiln Control Variables 232 17. Fuel Systems 253 18. Clinker Cooler Control 266 19. Kiln Exit-Gas Temperature Control 292 20. Feed-Rate Control 299 2I. Kiln Starts and Shutdowns 308 22. The 27 Basic Kiln Conditions 327 23. Kiln Emergency Conditions 346 24. Safety and Accident Prevention 362 Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI) 367 Appendix B: Weights and Measures 369 Appendix C: Temperature Conversions 378 Appendix D: Kiln Operator's Quiz 382 Index 386
Table 10.3 Theoretical Minimum Process Heat of Formation of Cement Clinker Energy Event/Process Temperature Range (C) (kcal/kg clinker) Heat in Sensible heat to raw material at temperature 20–450 170 Dehydration of clay at temperature ...
Author: Akwasi A Boateng
Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution & Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing & Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass & Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications ·Covers fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation ·Offers hard-to-find guidance on fuels used for rotary kilns, including fuel options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns ·Explains principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances
Structured into fourteen chapters, this volume covers various aspects of kiln maintenance and deals with the wear of components, operational parameters and their impact on the condition of the kiln, maintenance-friendly design ...
Author: J.P. Saxena
Publisher: CRC Press
Structured into fourteen chapters, this volume covers various aspects of kiln maintenance and deals with the wear of components, operational parameters and their impact on the condition of the kiln, maintenance-friendly design considerations of kiln components, on-line techniques for condition monitoring, repair during operation, effective management of a kiln shutdown, and some management approaches. It presents systematic analyses of the problems encountered during the life span of the kilns and suggests appropriate method(s) to tackle them and meet the needs of engineers and operators involved. Written in simple language, containing a good blend of theory and practice, and supported with practical reference tables and figures, this book is intended for engineers, operators and maintenance workers working with cement kilns. The author, Dr. J.P. Saxena is an absolute expert in the field.
Vertical kilns were tipped on their side, equipped with tires and bearings and rotated as they burned, at temperatures up to ... Today the rotary cement kiln, a roaring inferno, is the largest moving piece of equipment used by industry.
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The rotary cement kiln is the heart of the cement-manufacturing process. The raw materials which are the basis of cement are blended together in a finally ground feed which is continually introduced into the rotary kiln.
Author: Dave Osborne
Coal remains an important fossil fuel resource for many nations due to its large remaining resources, relatively low production and processing cost and potential high energy intensity. Certain issues surround its utilisation, however, including emissions of pollutants and growing concern about climate change. The coal handbook: Towards cleaner production Volume 2 explores global coal use in industry. Part one is an introductory section which reviews the social and economic value of coal, emissions from coal utilisation, the handling, impact and utilisation of coal waste, and an exploration of emerging and future issues around industrial coal utilization. Chapters in part two highlight coal resources, production and use in established markets as well as the emerging markets of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, and China. Part three focuses specifically on coal utilisation in industry. Chapters consider thermal coal utilisation, coal use in iron and steel metallurgy, advances in pulverised fuel technology, and the evaluation of coal for thermal and metallurgical applications. Further chapters explore coal utilisation in the cement and concrete industries, coal gasification and conversion, and value-in-use assessment for thermal and metallurgical coal. A final chapter summarises the anticipated future pathway towards sustainable, long-term coal use, suggesting transitions that will be needed to ensure cleaner utilisation for many decades to come. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, The coal handbook Volumes 1 and 2 is a comprehensive and invaluable resource for professionals in the coal mining, preparation, and utilisation industry, those in the power sector, including plant operators and engineers, and researchers and academics interested in this field. Reviews the social and economic value of coal, emissions from coal utilisation, and the handling, impact and utilisation of coal waste Explores emerging and future issues around industrial coal utilization Highlights coal resources, production and use in established markets, as well as emerging markets such as Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, and China
P. Weber , " Heat Transfer in Rotary Kilns , " Zement - Kalk - Gips , Special Edition # 9 ( in English ) 1964 . 35 . G. K. Englehart , " Fuller Preheater , Humboldt Suspension Type " Portland Cement Association , Reasearch and ...
Author: Portland Cement Association
This study gives detailed background data needed to establish energy conservation objectives which are reasonable for the industry, to assess the potential for energy conservation within the industry, and to establish the probable impacts of certain levels and types of federal research, development, and demonstration support. It discusses basic materials, processes used in manufacturing, new technology available, and the controlling economics.