The Long CrusadeThe Long Crusade



In *The Long Crusade*, Raymond Wolters traces the history of the past half-century of school reform by telling the stories of its most influential writers, activists, and intellectual movements.

Author: Raymond Wolters

Publisher:

ISBN: 1593680414

Category:

Page: 612

View: 129

Ever since the 1954 *Brown v. Board of Education* decision, which launched a national effort to desegregate American schools, education reform has been one of the most resonant, controversial, and perplexing social and political issues. In *The Long Crusade*, Raymond Wolters traces the history of the past half-century of school reform by telling the stories of its most influential writers, activists, and intellectual movements. These range from the "neo-progressives" (Jonathan Kozol, Howard Gardner, and Theodore Sizer) to "back to basics" reformers (Chris Whittle, Robert Slavin, and E. D. Hirsch) to contemporary advocates of "accountability" (Teach For America, Michelle Rhee, and Arne Duncan). Wolters concludes by profiling "contrarians" (Diane Ravitch, Robert Weissberg, and the "race realists"), who brought into question many of the orthodoxies of this period. America's educational crusades have been varied, but virtually all have shared a common fate: racial achievement gaps have never been closed. Wolters argues that these failures are not merely a result of bad policies. Underlying virtually all of these approaches has been the assumption that no innate cognitive differences exist between races. Wolters stresses that it is time to rethink what has been assumed-and to look with new eyes on the failures and achievements of the American educational system.

The Long CrusadeThe Long Crusade



Why is Bill attracted to a girl he doesn't understand?

Author: Rosemary Allix

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 1548522570

Category:

Page: 264

View: 773

Why is Bill attracted to a girl he doesn't understand? And why is Selena obsessed with Bill, a man she doesn't even like? As this mis-matched pair circle around each other within their broken lives they are unaware the answer may lie many lifetimes ago when a seriously wounded knight of the crusades was nursed back to life by a slave boy. The couple share a deep bond of love and gratitude which neither is able to express in their present lives. But other forces are at work. The laughing giant stands over them directing them from afar towards final healing of their ancient wounds.

The CrusadesThe Crusades



Taking recent scholarship into account, and using boxes, case studies, marginal directions and chronologies, the book is well laid out and easy to follow, providing a comprehensive overview of the crusade movement for students at all ...

Author: Nikolas Jaspert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134240418

Category:

Page: 208

View: 533

This German-to-English translation of a highly successful book is a clear, approachable, student-friendly introduction to the history of the Crusades. With a long chronological span, from the eleventh to the late fifteenth century, and with a wide geographical coverage of the whole of Europe and some of the Middle East, The Crusades is clear, concise and more wide-ranging than most single-volume works. Taking recent scholarship into account, and using boxes, case studies, marginal directions and chronologies, the book is well laid out and easy to follow, providing a comprehensive overview of the crusade movement for students at all university levels.

CrusadeCrusade



Integrating interviews with individuals ranging from senior policymakers to frontline soldiers, a look at the Persian Gulf War shows how the conflict transformed modern warfare

Author: Rick Atkinson

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0395710839

Category:

Page: 575

View: 794

Integrating interviews with individuals ranging from senior policymakers to frontline soldiers, a look at the Persian Gulf War shows how the conflict transformed modern warfare

The CrusadesThe Crusades



Chronicles the long, bloody history of the Crusades and demonstrates how this three-hundred-year-long struggle to control the Middle East changed Europe, and the world, forever.

Author: Geoffrey Hindley

Publisher: Running PressBook Pub

ISBN: 0786713445

Category:

Page: 300

View: 420

Chronicles the long, bloody history of the Crusades and demonstrates how this three-hundred-year-long struggle to control the Middle East changed Europe, and the world, forever.

The Crusader StrategyThe Crusader Strategy



In this lively account, Steve Tibble draws on a rich array of primary sources to reassess events on the ground and patterns of behavior over time.

Author: Steve Tibble

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300253115

Category:

Page: 376

View: 299

A new look at the crusaders, which shows how they pursued long-term plans and clear strategic goals Medieval states, and particularly crusader societies, often have been considered brutish and culturally isolated. It seems unlikely that they could develop "strategy" in any meaningful sense. However, the crusaders were actually highly organized in their thinking and their decision making was rarely random. In this lively account, Steve Tibble draws on a rich array of primary sources to reassess events on the ground and patterns of behavior over time. He shows how, from aggressive castle building to implementing a series of invasions of Egypt, crusader leaders tenaciously pursued long-term plans and devoted single-minded attention to clear strategic goals. Crusader states were permanently on the brink of destruction; resources were scarce and the penalties for failure severe. Intuitive strategic thinking, Tibble argues, was a necessity, not a luxury.

God s BattalionsGod s Battalions



Stark, the author of The Rise of Christianity, reviews the history of the seven major crusades from 1095-1291 in this fascinating work of religious revisionist history.

Author: Rodney Stark

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061942987

Category:

Page: 288

View: 406

In God’s Battalions, distinguished scholar Rodney Stark puts forth a controversial argument that the Crusades were a justified war waged against Muslim terror and aggression. Stark, the author of The Rise of Christianity, reviews the history of the seven major crusades from 1095-1291 in this fascinating work of religious revisionist history.

Contesting the CrusadesContesting the Crusades



In this book Norman Housley, one of the most distinguished historians of the medieval period, provides an introduction to the complex history of crusading.

Author: Norman Housley

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 1405111895

Category:

Page: 216

View: 273

In this book Norman Housley, one of the most distinguished historians of the medieval period, provides an introduction to the complex history of crusading. Steers readers through the key debates in this popular area of medieval history. Draws on the author’s 30 years’ experience of crusading scholarship. Issues addressed range from the definition of ‘crusade’, through the motivation and intentions of the crusaders, to the consequences of the crusades for European society

God s ArmiesGod s Armies



The story brims with larger than life characters, among them Richard the Lionheart, Nur al-Din, Saladin, Baybars, and Ghengiz Khan.

Author: Malcolm Lambert

Publisher: Pegasus Books

ISBN: 168177531X

Category:

Page: 352

View: 933

A chronicle of the Christian and Islamic struggle to control the sacred places of Palestine and the Middle East between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, this dynamic new history demonstrates that this simple opposition ignores crucial differences. Placing an equal emphasis on the inner histories of Christianity and Islam, the book traces the origins and development of crusade and jihad, showing for example that jihad reflected internal tensions in Islam from its beginnings. The narrative also reveals the ways in which crusade and jihad were used to disguise ambitions for power and to justify atrocity and yet also inspired acts of great chivalry and heroic achievement. The story brims with larger than life characters, among them Richard the Lionheart, Nur al-Din, Saladin, Baybars, and Ghengiz Khan.Lambert concludes by considers the long after-effects of jihad and crusade, including the role of the latter in French imperialism and of the former in the wars now afflicting the Middle East and parts of Africa. This vivid, balanced account will interest all readers who wish to understand the complexities of the medieval world and how it relates our own.

The Concept of Crusade During the Long Twentieth CenturyThe Concept of Crusade During the Long Twentieth Century



The book traces the development of the conceptualisation of Crusade through the period 1890-2008.

Author: Barry Cooper

Publisher:

ISBN: 1483934152

Category:

Page: 92

View: 860

The book traces the development of the conceptualisation of Crusade through the period 1890-2008. Several case studies are used: the Kensit Crusade, World War One, Crusading Literature, the Jarrow Crusade, the Spanish Civil War, World War Two, Billy Graham, Batman, the Civil Rights movement, modern motion pictures and the attacks of 9/11, alongside the historiographical record of the Crusades produced in the period. Using a conceptual framework these events are examined, the development traced and reasons for change established.

Emotions in a Crusading Context 1095 1291Emotions in a Crusading Context 1095 1291



Emotions in a Crusading Context calls on scholars of the crusades to reject the traditional methodological approach of taking the emotional descriptions embedded within historical narratives as straightforward reflections of protagonists' ...

Author: Stephen J. Spencer

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198833369

Category:

Page: 320

View: 573

Emotions in a Crusading Context is the first book-length study of the emotional rhetoric of crusading. It investigates the ways in which a number of emotions and affective displays-primarily fear, anger, and weeping-were understood, represented, and utilised in twelfth- and thirteenth-century western narratives of the crusades, making use of a broad range of comparative material to gauge the distinctiveness of those texts: crusader letters, papal encyclicals, model sermons, chansons de geste, lyrics, and an array of theological and philosophical treatises. In addition to charting continuities and changes over time in the emotional landscape of crusading, this study identifies the underlying influences which shaped how medieval authors represented and used emotions; analyzes the passions crusade participants were expected to embrace and reject; and assesses whether the idea of crusading created a profoundly new set of attitudes towards emotions. Emotions in a Crusading Context calls on scholars of the crusades to reject the traditional methodological approach of taking the emotional descriptions embedded within historical narratives as straightforward reflections of protagonists' lived feelings, and in so doing challenges the long historiographical tradition of reconstructing participants' beliefs and experiences from these texts. Within the history of emotions, Stephen J. Spencer demonstrates that, despite the ongoing drive to develop new methodologies for studying the emotional standards of the past, typified by experiments in 'neurohistory', the social constructionist (or cultural-historical) approach still has much to offer the historian of medieval emotions.

Albert of Aachen s History of the Journey to JerusalemAlbert of Aachen s History of the Journey to Jerusalem



Albert of Aachen’s History of the Journey to Jerusalem presents the story of the First Crusade (1095-1099) and the early history of the crusader states (1099-1119).

Author: Albert of Aachen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351870405

Category:

Page: 312

View: 834

Albert of Aachen’s History of the Journey to Jerusalem presents the story of the First Crusade (1095-1099) and the early history of the crusader states (1099-1119). Volume 1, The First Crusade, is a long and richly detailed account of events well known from the reports of participants, such as Fulcher of Chartres, Raymond of Aguilers and the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum, but told from a strikingly different perspective. Albert did not go on crusade himself, but gathered reports and anecdotes from those who did, and wove them into narrative that foregrounds the activities of Peter the Hermit, Godfrey of Bouillon, Baldwin of Boulogne, and their followers. His History therefore offers a counter-balance, and sometimes a corrective, to the established view. Susan B. Edgington’s English translation has been widely praised, following its first publication in the Oxford Medieval Texts series, and is here presented with a new introduction and updated notes and bibliography.

The Crusader StatesThe Crusader States



This book is devoted to the resulting settlements, the crusader states, that developed around the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and survived until Richard the Lionheart’s departure in 1192.

Author: Malcolm Barber

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300189315

Category:

Page: 496

View: 412

“An enriching account of the expansion of the political and cultural frontiers of the Latin West in the central Middle Ages.”—History Today When the armies of the First Crusade wrested Jerusalem from control of the Fatimids of Egypt in 1099, they believed their victory was an evident sign of God’s favor. It was, therefore, incumbent upon them to fulfill what they understood to be God’s plan: to re-establish Christian control of Syria and Palestine. This book is devoted to the resulting settlements, the crusader states, that developed around the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and survived until Richard the Lionheart’s departure in 1192. Focusing on Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli, and Edessa, Malcolm Barber vividly reconstructs the crusaders’ arduous process of establishing and protecting their settlements, and the simultaneous struggle of vanquished inhabitants to adapt to life alongside their conquerors. Rich with colorful accounts of major military campaigns, the book goes much deeper, exploring in detail the culture of the crusader states—the complex indigenous inheritance, the architecture, the political, legal, and economic institutions, the ecclesiastical framework through which the crusaders perceived the world, the origins of the Knights Templar and the Hospitallers, and more. With the zest of a scholar pursuing a life-long interest, Barber presents a complete narrative and cultural history of the crusader states while setting a new standard for the term “total history.” A Choice Outstanding Academic Title in the Western Europe Category “Barber is a highly distinguished scholar, whose touch is continually deft, and he navigates the basis of the main narrative histories with care . . . a delight to read.”—Literary Review

A Most Holy WarA Most Holy War



These accounts of ordinary men and women, remembering what it was like to live through such brutal times, bring the story vividly to life.

Author: Mark Gregory Pegg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199721513

Category:

Page: 288

View: 286

In January of 1208, a papal legate was murdered on the banks of the Rhone in southern France. A furious Pope Innocent III accused heretics of the crime and called upon all Christians to exterminate heresy between the Garonne and Rhone rivers--a vast region now known as Languedoc--in a great crusade. This most holy war, the first in which Christians were promised salvation for killing other Christians, lasted twenty bloody years--it was a long savage battle for the soul of Christendom. In A Most Holy War, historian Mark Pegg has produced a swift-moving, gripping narrative of this horrific crusade, drawing in part on thousands of testimonies collected by inquisitors in the years 1235 to 1245. These accounts of ordinary men and women, remembering what it was like to live through such brutal times, bring the story vividly to life. Pegg argues that generations of historians (and novelists) have misunderstood the crusade; they assumed it was a war against the Cathars, the most famous heretics of the Middle Ages. The Cathars, Pegg reveals, never existed. He further shows how a millennial fervor about "cleansing" the world of heresy, coupled with a fear that Christendom was being eaten away from within by heretics who looked no different than other Christians, made the battles, sieges, and massacres of the crusade almost apocalyptic in their cruel intensity. In responding to this fear with a holy genocidal war, Innocent III fundamentally changed how Western civilization dealt with individuals accused of corrupting society. This fundamental change, Pegg argues, led directly to the creation of the inquisition, the rise of an anti-Semitism dedicated to the violent elimination of Jews, and even the holy violence of the Reconquista in Spain and in the New World in the fifteenth century. All derive their divinely sanctioned slaughter from the Albigensian Crusade. Haunting and immersive, A Most Holy War opens an important new perspective on a truly pivotal moment in world history, a first and distant foreshadowing of the genocide and holy violence in the modern world.

The Origin of the Idea of CrusadeThe Origin of the Idea of Crusade



These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions.

Author: Carl Erdmann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691197647

Category:

Page: 488

View: 381

Though conditioned by the specific circumstances of eleventh-century Europe, the launching of the crusdaes presupposed a long historical evolution of the idea of Christian knighthood and holy war. Carl Erdmann developed this argument first in 1935 in a book that is still recognized as basic to an understanding of how the crusades came about. This first edition in English includes notes supplementing those of the German text, a foreword discussing subsequent scholarship, and an amplified bibliography. Paying special attention to the symbolism of banners as well as to literary evidence, the author traces the changes that moved the Western church away from its initial aversion to armed combat and toward acceptance and encouragement of the kind of holy war that the crusades would represent: a war whose specific cause was religion. Erdmann's analysis stresses the role of church reformers and Gregory VII, without neglecting the "popular" idea of crusade that would assure an astonishingly enthusiastic response to Urban II's appeal in 1095. His book provides an unrivaled account of he interaction of the church with war and warriors during the early Middle Ages. Carl Erdmann (1898-1945) taught at the University of Berlin and was associated with the Monumenta Germania historica. Marshall Baldwin was Professor Emeritus of History at New York University at his death in 1975. Walter Goffart is Professor of History at the University of Toronto. Originally published in 1978. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

CrusadeCrusade



When the Human-Orion war to end all interstellar wars collapses into an uneasy peace, mistrust and fear swells on both sides.

Author: David Weber

Publisher: Baen Books

ISBN: 9780671721114

Category:

Page: 432

View: 841

In the period of peace following the Human-Orion War, a ship from a half-forgotten history emerges from a warp point notorious for devouring ships and opens fire on the Orions. Original.

The Last Crusade in the WestThe Last Crusade in the West



The fundamentally religious character of this last stage of conflict cannot be doubted, Joseph F. O'Callaghan argues.

Author: Joseph F. O'Callaghan

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812245875

Category:

Page: 384

View: 451

By the middle of the fourteenth century, Christian control of the Iberian Peninsula extended to the borders of the emirate of Granada, whose Muslim rulers acknowledged Castilian suzerainty. No longer threatened by Moroccan incursions, the kings of Castile were diverted from completing the Reconquest by civil war and conflicts with neighboring Christian kings. Mindful, however, of their traditional goal of recovering lands formerly ruled by the Visigoths, whose heirs they claimed to be, the Castilian monarchs continued intermittently to assault Granada until the late fifteenth century. Matters changed thereafter, when Fernando and Isabel launched a decade-long effort to subjugate Granada. Utilizing artillery and expending vast sums of money, they methodically conquered each Naṣrid stronghold until the capitulation of the city of Granada itself in 1492. Effective military and naval organization and access to a diversity of financial resources, joined with papal crusading benefits, facilitated the final conquest. Throughout, the Naṣrids had emphasized the urgency of a jihād waged against the Christian infidels, while the Castilians affirmed that the expulsion of the "enemies of our Catholic faith" was a necessary, just, and holy cause. The fundamentally religious character of this last stage of conflict cannot be doubted, Joseph F. O'Callaghan argues.

The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of ConstantinopleThe Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople



crusaders probably had a chance to leave Byzantium in good order. ... Helping the Holy Land remained the long-term goal of the crusade, but immediate ...

Author: Jonathan Phillips

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101127728

Category:

Page: 400

View: 528

In 1202, zealous Western Christians gathered in Venice determined to liberate Jerusalem from the grip of Islam. But the crusaders never made it to the Holy Land. Steered forward by the shrewd Venetian doge, they descended instead on Constantinople, wreaking terrible devastation. The crusaders spared no one: They raped and massacred thousands, plundered churches, and torched the lavish city. By 1204, one of the great civilizations of history had been shattered. Here, on the eight hundredth anniversary of the sack, is the extraordinary story of this epic catastrophe, told for the first time outside of academia by Jonathan Phillips, a leading expert on the crusades. Knights and commoners, monastic chroniclers, courtly troubadours, survivors of the carnage, and even Pope Innocent III left vivid accounts detailing the events of those two fateful years. Using their remarkable letters, chronicles, and speeches, Phillips traces the way in which any region steeped in religious fanaticism, in this case Christian Europe, might succumb to holy war.

The Crusades The flame of Islam Saladin the victory bringer Baibars the panther Richard the Lion heart Saint Louis BarbarossaThe Crusades The flame of Islam Saladin the victory bringer Baibars the panther Richard the Lion heart Saint Louis Barbarossa



Both Edward II of England and Philip the Fair of France took the pledge of the crusade, and raised money for a new enterprise; but they found more pressing ...

Author: Harold Lamb

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015041831093

Category:

Page:

View: 504