The Iliac CrestThe Iliac Crest

Published for the first time in English, this Gothic tale is “utterly weird yet deeply resonant in its portrayal of gendered violence” (The Millions).

Author: Cristina Rivera Garza

Publisher: Feminist Press at CUNY

ISBN: 9781936932061


Page: 200

View: 527

On a dark and stormy night, two mysterious women invade an unnamed narrator’s house, where they proceed to ruthlessly question their host’s gender and identity. The increasingly frantic protagonist fails to defend his supposed masculinity and eventually finds himself in a sanatorium. A Gothic tale of destabilized male-female binaries and subverted literary tropes, this is the book's first English publication.

Hominin Postcranial Remains from Sterkfontein South Africa 1936 1995Hominin Postcranial Remains from Sterkfontein South Africa 1936 1995

There is thus no doubt that as in the other australopithecine ilia the sigmoid
curvature of the iliac crest was only faintly developed in comparison to modern
humans. Minor defects of the surface bone are present on the anterior iliac crest
and ...

Author: Bernhard Zipfel

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780197507667


Page: 408

View: 228

The Sterkfontein hominin fossils generally are attributed to the species Australopithecus africanus, because most craniodental remains from the site are attributable to that taxon (reviews in Grine, 2013, 2019). However, there may be more than one hominin represented within the sample, even within the most productive Member, Member 4, and given the complex stratigraphy of the site and challenges in dating the deposits, this may or not may be the case. In general. Several studies have suggested the presence of two or more australopith taxon within the sample, each citing more morphological variation among the craniodental remains from Sterkfontein that can be attributed to a single species, at least compared to extant hominoid taxa (Kimbel and White, 1988; Clarke 1988, 1994; Lockwood, 1997, Lockwood and Tobias, 2002). However, it is notable that none of these studies agree on which specimens comprise the different possible taxa or groups, largely due to emphasis on different aspects of morphology varying among the fossils. The likely time depth of the Sterkfontein sample, even within Member 4, (see Chapter 3, this volume), may also complicate assessment of potential taxonomic heterogeneity at the site. None of the Sterkfontein postcranial fossils can be definitively associated with any craniodental specimens (but see Thackeray et al., 2002), and so cannot be related directly to any of the proposed taxonomic divisions within the sample. However, some studies have cited variation within the postcranial fossils that may also reflect taxonomic variation, although many studies to date have not tackled this question rigorously. Even though these suggestions have been made occasionally in the literature, no clear or consistent suggestion of two or more taxa has been apparent within the postcranial samples (reviewed in Grine 2019). Taxonomic variation is one of the key questions that each chapter in this volume addresses (summarized in Chapter 18, this volume)"--

Manual of OrthopaedicsManual of Orthopaedics

On most occasions , the iliac crest is used for the graft , although various bone
grafts are available . ... For removal of a small amount of bone , tension the skin
over the iliac bone and cut to the ilium without entering muscle or fascial planes .

Author: Marc F. Swiontkowski

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 078175755X


Page: 468

View: 691

The thoroughly updated Sixth Edition of this popular Spiral® Manual is a reliable, accessible guide for all health care professionals who diagnose and treat musculoskeletal injuries and diseases. In a user-friendly outline format, the book presents specific proven treatment regimens for the full range of acute and chronic orthopaedic disorders. More than 200 illustrations complement the text. This edition's chapters on non-acute disorders include guidelines for primary care physicians on evaluating patients' complaints, planning a cost-effective workup, utilizing physical and occupational therapy, and determining whether orthopaedic subspecialist care is needed. A new chapter covers aspiration and injection of upper and lower extremities.

Spinal DeformitiesSpinal Deformities

The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) exits anteriorly medial to the ASIS.
femorocutaneous nerve, the anterior iliac crest should be harvested 2 to 3cm
behind the anterosuperior iliac spine.37 From this point the thick and strong
region of ...

Author: Ronald L. DeWald

Publisher: Thieme

ISBN: 9781604064346


Page: 268

View: 914

Here is the first book to bring basic and clinical science together in the challenging field of spinal deformities. A renowned team of international authors provide the soup-to-nuts information you need, demonstrating not only how to stop progression of a deformity, but also how to quickly and safely correct it.Beginning with an introduction to surgical anatomy, the book covers physiology, pharmacology, neurology, radiology, instrumentation, surgical techniques, complications, and more. It provides vital details on every aspect of spinal deformities from degenerative disc disease and neuromuscular scoliosis to fusion techniques and revision surgery. Special features of this encyclopedic resource:State-of-the-art approaches to clinical evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation from a who's who of leading expertsMore than 1,000 high-quality illustrations demonstrate all surgical proceduresDetailed, in-depth analysis of everything from anatomy and pharmacology to biomechanics and anesthesiologyEndorsed by the world's leading scoliosis/spinal organization, The Scoliosis Research SocietyThis book is the bible for treating spinal deformities that every orthopedic surgeon, neurosurgeon, and resident needs. Take advantage of this single-volume text that contains all the facts and information necessary to successfully manage spinal deformities!

Distraction Osteogenesis of the Facial SkeletonDistraction Osteogenesis of the Facial Skeleton

Technique for Iliac Crest Bone Graft Harvest • Anterior The anatomic landmarks
for harvest from the anterior ilium are the anterior superior iliac spine and crest,
as well as knowledge of the location of various sensory nerves in the region ...

Author: William H. Bell

Publisher: PMPH USA

ISBN: 1550093444


Page: 609

View: 577

The book highlights the application of distraction osteogenesis in repositioning of teeth. The paradigm in orthognathic surgery has shifted in a way that it is now possible to perform distraction osteogenesis in an outpatient basis. The principles and procedures involved in this cutting edge technique are outlined in the book. Rapid orthodontics, sophisticated imaging, tissue engineering, principles of bone healing and tissue repair and more are discussed by leaders in the field. Through distraction osteogenesis (slow movement), and orthognathic surgery (immediate movement), virtually every kind of facial deformity is treatable in a reasonable period of time. Dr. Bell, a prime mover in oral and maxillofacial surgery, has collected contributions from first-class academicians and practitioners in the field for this lavishly illustrated volume. Key Features Intensely clinical flavor with 600 full color illustrations DVD containing surgical videos and case reports,cutting edge procedures and imaging.

Rothman Simeone The Spine E BookRothman Simeone The Spine E Book

..The.periosteal. and.fascial.attachments.of.the.iliacus.and.abdominal.wall.
muscles.remain.intact.on.the.inner.edge.of.the.horizontal. cut.through.the.iliac.
crest ...

Author: Harry N. Herkowitz

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781437736243


Page: 2096

View: 744

Rothman-Simeone The Spine helps you achieve optimal outcomes in the clinical practice of spine surgery in adults and children. Drs. Harry N. Herkowitz, Steven R. Garfin, Frank J. Eismont, Gordon R. Bell, Richard Balderston, and an internationally diverse group of authorities help you keep up with the fast-paced field and get the best results from state-of-the-art treatments and surgical techniques, such as spinal arthroplasty and the latest spinal implants and equipment. An all-new full-color design and surgical videos online at make this classic text more invaluable than ever before. Get the best results from the full range of both surgical and non-surgical treatment approaches with guidance from the world’s most trusted authorities in orthopaedic spine surgery. Find important information quickly through pearls, pitfalls, and key points that highlight critical points. Watch experts perform key techniques in real time with videos, on DVD and online, demonstrating minimally invasive surgery: SED procedure; thorascopic techniques; lumbar discectomy; pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO); C1, C2 fusion; intradural tumor; cervical laminoforaminoty; and much more. Apply the newest developments in the field thanks to expert advice on minimally invasive surgery, spinal arthroplasty and the latest spinal implants and equipments. See procedures clearly through an all new full-color design with 2300 color photographs and illustrations placed in context. Access the fully searchable contents of text online at

Complications of Spine SurgeryComplications of Spine Surgery

16 INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW Autogenous iliac crest bone graft has long been
considered the gold standard source of bone graft for spinal fusion surgery ,
providing more rapid and reliable fusion than allograft bone in a variety of clinical

Author: Howard S. An

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 0781757916


Page: 195

View: 926

Written by internationally recognized experts, this book is a comprehensive, practical guide to prevention, recognition, and management of complications in spine surgery. Sections cover the cervical spine and the thoracolumbar/lumbosacral spine and discuss the full range of complications that may be encountered, including those associated with the newest technologies, procedures, and instrumentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific type of problem and presents "how-to" strategies for avoiding and managing the problem in specific surgical procedures. Of special note are the detailed discussions of complications related to instrumentation. Each chapter includes extensive, up-to-date references. More than 150 illustrations complement the text.

The Osteology of Infants and ChildrenThe Osteology of Infants and Children

The auricular surface is on the side from which the bone comes (see figs. 6.10
and 6.1 1, left). You can also position the bone with the iliac crest up, the
acetabular surface down, and the auricular surface facing you. Again, the
auricular surface ...

Author: Brenda J. Baker

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 1585444650


Page: 188

View: 406

Most archaeologists and bioarchaeologists receive little or no training in the recognition of skeletal remains of fetuses, infants, and children. Yet many research sites may contain such materials. Without a framework for identifying the bones or the excavation techniques suited to their recovery, archaeologists may often overlook subadult skeletal remains or even confuse them with animal bones. The Osteology of Infants and Children fills the need for a field and lab manual on this important topic and provides a supplemental textbook for human osteology courses. Focusing on juvenile skeletons, their recovery and identification, and siding in both field and lab settings, the volume provides basic descriptions and careful illustrations of each skeletal element at varying stages of development, along with sections on differentiation from other bones and siding tips. The book offers detailed treatment of the skull and teeth, including the cranial vault and facial bones, and examines the infracranial skeleton: vertebrae, pelvis, chest, shoulders, arms, hands, legs, and feet. A quick reference guide explains age estimation and identification templates. The illustrations are enhanced by photographs from two recent archaeology projects in Egypt, at Abydos and Dakhleh Oasis. The extensive collection of fetal and child remains from these sites provides new reference material unavailable in previous publications, making this manual an unparalleled resource in the field of physical anthropology.

Anatomy and Human Movement Structure and function with PAGEBURST Access 6Anatomy and Human Movement Structure and function with PAGEBURST Access 6

Spinous tubercles on median sacral crest Lateral sacral crest Cornu of coccyx
Body Auricular surface Pubis 60° Coccyx Cornu of sacrum is the iliac crest, which
is convex superiorly as well as anteroposteriorly with the anterior part curved ...

Author: Nigel Palastanga

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780702035531


Page: 620

View: 572

to understand and remember the mechanisms which allow movement to take place. Now in its sixth edition, the approach remains the same - each section of the body is presented systematically where readers are introduced to the bones, then guided through the muscles, joints, nervous system and blood supply. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system is brought to life through simple full colour artwork following a colour key for clarity and accuracy.

Spine Surgery 2 Vol Set E BookSpine Surgery 2 Vol Set E Book

If the iliac crest is within 5 cm of the retroperitoneal skin incision, dissection
through the same skin incision allows access to the iliac crest for harvesting
autologous bone graft. If more than 6 cm separates the skin incision from the iliac
crest, ...

Author: Edward C. Benzel

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781455723324


Page: 2248

View: 577

Build a solid foundation of knowledge based on the fundamentals and employ step-by-step instruction from Spine Surgery. Edited by Edward C. Benzel, this best-selling medical reference explores the full spectrum of surgical techniques used in spine surgery and delivers the comprehensive, cutting-edge guidance you need to achieve successful outcomes. Online access, thorough updates, contributions by leading international authorities, an abundance of detailed illustrations, and procedural video clips provide everything you need to avoid and manage complex problems. Glean essential, up-to-date, need-to-know information in one comprehensive reference that explores the full spectrum of surgical techniques used in spine surgery. Hone your surgical skills and technique with intraoperative videos and more than 800 outstanding illustrations demonstrating each technique step by step. Grasp and apply the latest knowledge from more than 25 brand-new chapters, as well as extensive revisions or total rewrites to the majority of existing chapters to present all of the most up-to-date information available on every aspect of spine surgery including motion preservation technologies, endovascular management, back pain and psychosocial interactions, biomechanics, and more. Consult with the best. Renowned neurosurgery authority Edward C. Benzel leads an international team of accomplished neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons - many new to this edition - who provide dependable guidance and share innovative approaches to surgical techniques and complications management. Equip yourself to address increasing occurrences of pain among aging and physically active patients. Access the information you need, where you need it on your laptop or mobile device via, with fully searchable text, a wealth of procedural videos, online updates from the experts, downloadable image gallery and links to PubMed.

Principles Techniques and Applications in MicrosurgeryPrinciples Techniques and Applications in Microsurgery

The external iliac artery is exposed by tracing the the iliac crest according to the
size needed . The osteotomy process must not be too rough , and chiselling must
be stopped once the cortical bone is cut through . The isolated piece of bone ...

Author: T. S. Chang

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9971978091


Page: 387

View: 311

This book is a comprehensive volume on microsurgery in China. It covers the history, general concepts, equipment and techniques of microsurgery. Unlike other books on the same subject which concentrate mainly on plastic surgery and hand surgery, this book introduces the applications of microsurgical techniques in neurosurgery, gastro-enterology and orthopaedic surgery. This is a valuable text as the vast experience of Chinese microsurgery is also included.

Bone DiseasesBone Diseases

The dense shadow of the tumor has extended over the iliac crest into the left
paravertebral soft tissues (3). In Fig. 568 it is radiologically clear that the highly
osteosclerotic tumor has occupied a large part of the ala of the left iliac bone (1),
and ...

Author: Claus-Peter Adler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354065061X


Page: 589

View: 287

A comprehensive description of macroscopic, microscopic, and radiological methods for the diagnosis of bone diseases. The book presents all the procedures involved in diagnosis, using not only radiological and histological techniques, but also modern immunohistochemical and scintigraphic methods. Succinct and well-structured therapeutic recommendations are provided for an array of bone diseases, making this a practice-oriented reference work for pathologists, radiologists, rheumatologists, and orthopedists.

Noyes Knee Disorders Surgery Rehabilitation Clinical Outcomes E BookNoyes Knee Disorders Surgery Rehabilitation Clinical Outcomes E Book

A B Outer iliac cortex FIGURE 31–34. A, A 4-cm incision over the anterior iliac
crest is made to harvest the iliac crest bone graft. The graft is composed of the
anterior crest and outer iliac cortex; the inner table is not removed. B, The usual
iliac ...

Author: Frank R. Noyes

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781437721188


Page: 1176

View: 250

Frank R. Noyes, MD—internationally-renowned knee surgeon and orthopaedic sports medicine specialist—presents Noyes’ Knee Disorders, an unparalleled resource on the diagnosis, management, and outcomes analysis for the full range of complex knee disorders. Master the technical details of procedures such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscus repair, articular cartilage restoration, and many others, and implement appropriate post-operative rehabilitation programs and protocols. Analyze and manage gender disparities in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. You can access the full text, as well as downloadable images, PubMed links, and alerts to new research online at Offers online access to the full text, downloadable images, PubMed links, and alerts to new research online at through Expert Consult functionality for convenient reference. Presents step-by-step descriptions on the full range of complex soft tissue knee operative procedures for the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscus repair, soft tissue transplants, osseous malalignments, articular cartilage restoration, posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and more to provide you with guidance for the management of any patient. Relies on Dr. Noyes’ meticulous published clinical studies and outcomes data from other peer-reviewed publications as a scientifically valid foundation for patient care. Features detailed post-operative rehabilitation programs and protocols so that you can apply proven techniques and ease your patients’ progression from one phase to the next. Bonus video available only from the website provides live presentations from the 2009 Advances on the Knee and Shoulder course, step-by-step surgical demonstration of an opening wedge tibial osteotomy, and a 4-part series on the Diagnosis of Knee Ligament Injuries.


The posterior portion of the iliac crest can be palpated , as can the spines of the
five lumbar vertebrae ( Ll through L5 ) in the midline . lie in all four quadrants .
The pancreas lies just behind the abdominal cavity on the posterior abdominal
wall ...

Author: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 0763744069


Page: 1296

View: 507

Textbook for EMT training. The DVD walks students through the skills necessary to pass the EMT-Basic practical exam.

Pain Management E BookPain Management E Book

139.106e Injection along the iliac crest: #2. Fig. 139.108e Injection along the iliac
crest: #4. Fig. 139.109e Injection along the iliac crest: #5. Fig. 139.107e Injection
along the iliac crest: #3. These injections clearly infiltrate substantial fascial ...

Author: Steven D. Waldman

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781437736038


Page: 1248

View: 503

Regarded as the premiere clinical reference in its field, Pain Management, 2nd Edition, edited by noted pain authority Dr. Steven Waldman, provides comprehensive, practical, highly visual guidance to help you effectively apply the most recent evidence-based advances in pain management. This popular text has been updated with 13 new chapters that include the latest information on interventional and ultrasound-guided techniques, acute regional pain nerve blocks, and more. A user-friendly format with lavish illustrations enables you to access trusted guidance quickly...and apply the information bring effective pain relief to your patients. Tap into the experience of the book’s editor, Dr. Steven D. Waldman—author of numerous groundbreaking pain management references—and a diverse collection of leading international experts, many of whom are new to this edition. Effectively diagnose and manage any type of pain by implementing the latest, evidence-based approaches including interventional and ultrasound-guided techniques, and acute regional pain nerve blocks. Keep up with the most essential and latest topics with fully revised chapters and 13 new chapters that include information on central pain modulation, ultrasound-guided procedures, myelopathy, and more. Find the critical answers you need quickly and easily thanks to a templated format, with all content solely reviewed by Dr. Waldman to insure consistency throughout. Make more accurate diagnoses and perform nerve blocks successfully with unmatched guidance from 1100 full-color, large-scale illustrations.

Gray s Anatomy for Students E BookGray s Anatomy for Students E Book

A B Ligament attachments Articular surface for sacrum Iliac fossa Arcuate line
Body of ilium Iliac tuberosity Obturator groove Pectineal Superior pubic ramus
line Pubic tubercle Pubic crest Body of pubis Inferior pubic ramus Ramus of
ischium ...

Author: Richard Drake

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9781437720556


Page: 1136

View: 290

It didn’t take long for students around the world to realize that anatomy texts just don’t get any better than Gray’s Anatomy for Students. Only in its 2nd edition, this already popular, clinically focused reference has moved far ahead of the competition and is highly recommended by anyone who uses it. A team of authors with a wealth of diverse teaching and clinical experience has updated and revised this new edition to efficiently cover what you’re learning in contemporary anatomy classes. An improved format, updated clinical material, and remarkable artwork by renowned illustrators Richard Tibbitts and Paul Richardson make anatomy easier than ever for you to master. Unique coverage of surface anatomy, correlative diagnostic images, and clinical case studies demonstrate practical applications of anatomical concepts. And, an international advisory board, comprised of more than 100 instructors, ensures that the material is accurate, up to date, and easy to use. Uses more than 1,000 innovative original illustrations— by renowned illustrators Richard Tibbitts and Paul Richardson—to capture anatomical features with unrivalled clarity, and makes body structures easy to locate and remember from one illustration to another through consistent use of color. Includes over 300 clinical photographs, including radiological images depicting surface anatomy and common clinical applications of anatomic knowledge. Presents an organization by body region that parallels the approach used in most of today’s anatomy courses. Features conceptual overviews summarizing each body region's component parts, functions, and relationship to other bodily organs. Uses clinical cases to underscore the real-life relevance of the material. Features a rewritten abdomen section for greater clarity. Provides updates and revisions to clinical material to provide you with the absolute latest knowledge in the field. Includes expanded discussions of cranial nerves for added clinical relevancy. Uses a new internal design and presents an improved index for easier retrieval of information. Provides more information on the general aspects of anatomy via introduction chapter.

Surgery of the Hip JointSurgery of the Hip Joint

2–1 of the femur, the base of the triangle is shortened. pation compare the level
of the iliac crests and the anterior superior iliac spines. A unilateral elevation of
the iliac crest or the anterior superior spine may indicate a fixed lumbar scoliosis,

Author: R.G. Tronzo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461252245


Page: 426

View: 729

The first edition of Surgery of the Hip Joint has had certain measures of success. Its cover won the Outstanding A ward for art at a publishers trade show. A year later it was translated into Spanish for exposure to the vast world of the Spanish speaking peoples. As I traveled through Europe, it was repeatedly a pleasant surprise to have the book recognized as an authoritative reference. This was a great tribute to the experts whose diligent efforts made it all possible. Apparently the book has stood the test of time to judge from the many inquiries and constructive comments made toward urging us on to write a second edition. It was not an easy task to gather another cadre of authorities to update our knowledge of the hip joint. People who have earned respected positions in their field are unavoidably burdened with a busy schedule, so a chapter in this text must be appreciated as coming from someone devoted to giving up some of his precious time for the sake of sharing his knowledge with peers and students. As we struggled along, it became obvious that the book should be divided into three volumes, because outdated concepts had to be scrapped if an up-to-date text were to be offered. Time passed so rapidly that total hip arthroplasties would not become stabilized because of a never-ending parade of implant designs with increasing bioengineering considerations.

Pediatric Facial and Reconstructive Surgery An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America Pediatric Facial and Reconstructive Surgery An Issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America

(continued). 9-year old boy with ramus osteosarcoma. (G) Iliac crest free flap with
internal oblique muscle Fig. 1. Cranial to facial ratio comparison in a neonate,.
the amount of skin needed for the soft tissue reconstruction. Another advantage
of ...

Author: Sherard Austin Tatum

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9780323323727


Page: 217

View: 772

This issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics addresses the major surgical procedures in pediatric facial reconstruction that deal with congenital disorders and defects as well as trauma and tumors. Audience for this issue are Otolaryngologists who perform pediatric facial plastic surgery, facial plastic surgeons and those subspecialized in pediatric reconstruction, plastic reconstructive surgeons, and oral and maxillofacial surgeons who specialize in reconstruction of the oral area. Topics include Facial nerve rehabilitation; Septorhinoplasty; Vascular lesions; Craniofacial anomalies; Free tissue transfer; Craniomaxillofacial trauma; Cleft lip and palate; Surgical speech disorders; Otoplasty; Microtia; Soft tissu trauma and scar revision; Distraction osteogenesis.

Textbook of Anatomy Abdomen and Lower Limb Textbook of Anatomy Abdomen and Lower Limb

The part above the iliac crest is made of inner surfaces of the 12th rib and the part
below the iliac crest is made of iliac fossa. 2. Muscular part: Above the iliac crest,
from medial to lateral sides, it is made up of psoas major, quadratus lumborum, ...

Author: Vishram Singh

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 9788131236260


Page: 520

View: 564

The Second Edition of this Volume is updated in accordance with the syllabus of Anatomy recommended by the Medical Council of India. It covers in detail the anatomy of abdomen and lower limb. Following recent trends of anatomy education, the book in addition to basic information provides knowledge on anatomical, embryological, and histological basis of clinical conditions through its features — Clinical Correlation and Clinical Case Study. Written in simple and easy-to-understand language, this profusely illustrated book provides knowledge of anatomy without extraneous details – ideal for undergraduate medical and dental students. It is highly recommended for those preparing for various entrance examinations, like PG entrance, USMLE, PLAB, etc. Salient Features Detailed exposition on abdominal hernias, joints, and nerve injuries Chapters on anterior abdominal wall; inguinal region/groin; male external genital organs; liver and extrahepatic biliary apparatus; kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands; urinary bladder and urethra; bones of the lower limb; medial side of the thigh; back of the leg; joints of the lower limb; innervation of the lower limb have been revised thoroughly Clinical Correlations integrated in the text, highlighting practical application of anatomical facts, have been modified extensively Addition of new line diagrams and improvement in earlier diagrams Addition of halftone figures to enrich the understanding of clinical correlations Inclusion of new tables and flowcharts and revision in earlier tables Clinical Case Study at the end of each chapter to initiate interest of students in problem based learning (PBL) Additional information of higher academic value presented in a simple way in N.B. to make it more interesting for readers, especially aspiring postgraduates Important facts useful for candidates appearing in various entrance examinations like PGME, USMLE, PLAB, listed under Golden Facts to Remember Multiple Choice Questions at the end of the book for self-assessment of the topics studied