In this book, we address the business of making money by taking risk....”—From the Introduction In The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement, financial industry veteran Chris Marrison examines what banks must do to succeed in the business of ...
Author: Christopher Marrison
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
A step-by-step guidebook for understanding—and implementing—integrated financial risk measurement and management The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement introduces the state-of-the-art tools and practices necessary for planning, executing, and maintaining risk management in today’s volatile financial environment. This comprehensive book provides description and analysis of topics including: Economic capital Risk adjusted return on capital (RAROC) Shareholder Value Added (SVA) Value at Risk (VaR) Asset/liability management (ALM) Credit risk for a single facility Credit risk for portfolios Operating risk Inter-risk diversification The Basel Committee Capital Accords The banking world is driven by risk. The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement shows you how to quantify that risk, outlining an integrated framework for risk measurement and management that is straightforward, practical for implementation, and based on the realities of today’s tumultuous global marketplace. “Banks make money in one of two ways: providing services to customers and taking risks. In this book, we address the business of making money by taking risk....”—From the Introduction In The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement, financial industry veteran Chris Marrison examines what banks must do to succeed in the business of making money by taking risk. Encompassing the three primary areas of banking risk—market, credit, and operational—and doing so in a uniquely intuitive, step-by-step format, Marrison provides hands-on details on the primary tools for financial risk measurement and management, including: Plain-English evaluation of specific risk measurement tools and techniques Use of Value at Risk (VaR) for assessment of market risk for trading operations Asset/liability management (ALM) techniques, transfer pricing, and managing market and liquidity risk The many available methods for analyzing portfolios of credit risks Using RAROC to compare the risk-adjusted profitability of businesses and price transactions In addition, woven throughout The Fundamentals of Risk Measurement are principles underlying the regulatory capital requirements of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, and what banks must do to understand and implement them. The requirements are defined, implications of the New Capital Accord are presented, and the major steps that a bank must take to implement the New Accord are discussed. The resulting thumbnail sketch of the Basel Committee, and specifically the New Capital Accord, is valuable as both a ready reference and a foundation for further study of this important initiative. Risk is unavoidable in the financial industry. It can, however, be measured and managed to provide the greatest risk-adjusted return, and limit the negative impacts of risk to a bank’s shareholders as well as potential borrowers and lenders. The Fundamentals of Risk Management provides risk managers with an approach to risk-taking that is both informed and prudent, one that shows operations managers how to control risk exposures as it allows decision-making executives to direct resources to opportunities that are expected to create maximum return with minimum risk. The result is today’s most complete introduction to the business of risk, and a valuable reference for anyone from the floor trader to the officer in charge of overseeing the entire risk management operation.
This problem is reduced a little if Eigenvalue decomposition is used because Eigenvalue decomposition specifically isolates the few fundamental risk factors that drive most of the changes . This allows us to concentrate on ensuring that ...
Author: Christopher Marrison
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: The Basics of Risk Management This chapter introduces how banks work. It describes how they make money, how they often lose money, and how they try to manage their losses. It includes thirteen short case studies showing how banks have lost money. Chapter 2: Risk Measurement at the Corporate Level: Economic Capital and RAROC Chapter Two discusses the meaning of capital and how the risks that a bank faces are related to the amount of capital that the bank should hold. It then describes the two fundamental building blocks of integrated risk measurement: Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Return on Capital (RAROC). Chapter 3: Review of Statistics Chapter Three is useful for those readers who do not have a recent working knowledge of statistics. It reviews the statistical relationships that are commonly used in risk measurement and provides reference material for the rest of the book. Examples are provided using financial loss data. MARKET RISK SECTION Chapter 4: Background on Traded Instruments This chapter gives an overview of the main types of traded instruments: bonds, equities and derivatives. It gives a qualitative description of the instrument, examples of calculating the instrument’s value and the basic risk metrics such as duration and the Greeks. This chapter is useful for those readers who are new to the finance industry. Chapter 5: Market Risk Measurement This chapter describes the most common ways to measure market risks: Sensitivity analysis, Stress testing, Scenario testing, Sharpe Ratio and Value at Risk. It gives detailed examples of using each of the metrics. Chapter 6: The Three Common Approaches for Calculating Value at Risk Value at Risk (VaR) has become the standard approach for measuring market risk. This chapter is devoted to explaining the details of the three common approaches to calculating VaR: Parametric VaR, Historical VaR and Monte Carlo VaR. We work though increasingly complex examples and compare the strengths of each approach. (Note: many readers will be particularly interested in this chapter because the name “VaR” is well known and has a certain mystery) Chapter 7: Value at Risk Contribution The Value at Risk Contribution (VaRC) is a useful way of pinpointing the source of the portfolio’s risk. VaRC can break down the risk by instrument, trading desk or market risk factor. Examples are given for several types of VaRC. Chapter 8: Testing VaR Results to Ensure Proper Risk Measurement This chapter discusses the procedures required by regulators to backtest VaR calculators to check that their predictions of losses are consistent with market events. Chapter 9: Calculating Capital for Market Risk VaR is used as the basis for calculating both Regulatory Capital and Economic Capital for Market Risks. In this chapter VaR also extended to measure the risk of Asset Management operations. Chapter 10: Overcoming VaR Limitations Although VaR is the best single metric for market risks, is has several limitations. The limitations and typical solutions are discussed in this chapter. Chapter 11: The Management of Market Risk This chapter concludes the market risk section by describing how the results of risk measurement are used by management to identify the sources of risk. It also describes the process of setting VaR Limits. (Note: readers should be particularly interested in VaR Limits because it is difficult and an important element in controlling a bank’s risk). ASSET/LIABILITY MANGEMENT SECTION Chapter 12: Introduction to Asset Liability Management Asset Liability Management (ALM) is primarily concerned with the interest rate and liquidity risks that are created when commercial banks take in short term deposits from customers and give out long term loans. This chapter describes how those risks arise and the risk characteristics of different types of deposits and loans. Chapter 13: Measurement of Interest Rate Risk for ALM This chapter discussed the primary techniques used to measure interest rate risk: Gap reports, Rate shift scenarios and Simulations Chapter 14: Funding Liquidity Risk in ALM The measurement of liquidity risk is broken into three groups: expected, unusual and crisis events. Measurement techniques are given for each group. Chapter 15: Funds Transfer Pricing and the Management of ALM Risks A key use of asset/liability measurement is the calculation of the fair price at which funds should be lent from one department to another within a bank. This is one of the keys to integrated risk measurement and is a critical component in measuring risk-adjusted profitability and setting prices to customers. A typical balance sheet is used to illustrate how transfer pricing works in detail. CREDIT RISK SECTION Chapter 16: Introduction to Credit Risk This chapter discusses the sources of credit risk and how measurement is used to manage the risks Chapter 17: Types of Credit Structure For readers who are unfamiliar with lending operations, we discuss the ways that credit exposures are structured in commercial and retail lending. It also describes the calculation of credit exposure for derivatives trading operations and gives an overview of credit derivatives. Chapter 18: Risk Measurement for a Single Facility This chapter shows how the Expected Loss and Unexpected Loss for a loan can be calculated from the Probability of Default, Loss In the Event of Default, Exposure at Default and the Grade Migration Matrix. Chapter 19: Estimating Parameter Values for Single Facilities One of the main difficulties in credit risk measurement is the estimation of values for Probability of Default, Loss Given Default and Exposure at Default. This chapter discusses estimation techniques such as Discriminant Analysis and the Merton Model. It also gives parameter values that can be used as the basis for the reader’s own models. The parameter values are used in examples to demonstrate how the credit risk calculations are used. Chapter 20: Risk Measurement For A Credit Portfolio: Part One To estimate the overall risk for a portfolio many credit instruments, we must examine the correlation between losses. This chapter describes the Covariance Credit Portfolio Model and the different approaches available for estimating default correlations. It also describes how the correlations can be used to estimate the Unexpected Loss Contribution and the Economic Capital for a single facility within a portfolio. Chapter 21: Risk Measurement For A Credit Portfolio: Part Two This chapter describes the four other widely used approaches for estimating the risk of credit portfolios: the actuarial model, the Merton-based simulation model, the macro economic default model and the macro economic cashflow model used for structured and project finance. It concludes with a section describing how the models can be combined in a unified framework to create an integrated simulation of all the bank’s risks Chapter 22: Risk Adjusted Performance and Pricing for Loans Knowing the economic capital for a loan, this chapter shows how to calculate the minimum price that should be charged to a loan customer. The analysis shows how to include multi-year effects such as grade migration. Illustrative examples are included. (Note: this chapter should be of interest to readers because loan pricing is another difficult and important subject that is rarely discussed in other books) Chapter 23: Regulatory Capital for Credit Risk The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (often called the BIS) is planning fundamental changes to the way that banks must calculate the capital that they hold. The new calculations will be very similar to the calculations described in the rest of this book for economic capital. This chapter summarizes the history of the Capital Accords then compares the different approaches that the BIS will allow. It also gives a standard plan for implementing the new Accords. (Note: this should be of interest to readers because the shift to BIS measurement is of major importance, it will be difficult for most banks, and it must be completed by 2005) OPERATING RISK SECTION Chapter 24: Operating risk The quantification of Operating Risks is on the frontier of the industry’s understanding of risk measurement. The risk estimation approaches can be categorized as either qualitative, structural or actuarial. These approaches are described including Key Risk Indicators and the BIS approaches. INTEGRATED RISK SECTION Chapter 25: Inter-risk Diversification and Bank-Level RAROC This chapter describes how all the models are linked to calculate Economic Capital and Risk Adjusted Profitability for the Bank as a whole. It concludes with of the steps normally required to implement the bank-wide measurement of Economic Capital and RAROC.pital and RAROC.
This guide for emerging professionals provides a comprehensive understanding of risk management with tools, tips and tactics on how to offer expert insights and drive success in an ever-changing area, covering everything from Covid-19 and ...
Author: Clive Thompson
Publisher: Kogan Page Publishers
Effective risk management allows opportunities to be maximized and uncertainty to be minimized. This guide for emerging professionals provides a comprehensive understanding of risk management with tools, tips and tactics on how to offer expert insights and drive success. Fundamentals of Risk Management is a detailed and comprehensive introduction to commercial and business risk for students and risk professionals. Completely aligned with ISO 31000 and the COSO ERM Framework, this book covers the key principles of risk management and how to deal with the different types of risk organizations face. The frameworks of business continuity planning, enterprise risk management, and project risk management are covered alongside an overview of international risk management standards and frameworks, strategy and policy. The revised sixth edition includes updates throughout as well as providing new content on trends such as cyber risk, black swan events and climate risk. Supported by relevant international case examples including BP, Singapore Airlines and Darktrace, this book provides a full analysis of changes in contemporary risk areas including digital risk management, risk culture and appetite, supply chain and statutory risk reporting. Supporting online resources include lecture slides with figures, tables and key points from the book.
With relevant international case studies and examples from both the private and public sectors, this third edition of Fundamentals of Risk Management is completely aligned to ISO 31000.
Author: Paul Hopkin
Publisher: Kogan Page Publishers
Now in its third edition, Fundamentals of Risk Management provides a comprehensive introduction to commercial and business risk for anyone studying for a career in risk as well as for a broad range of risk professionals in different sectors. Providing extensive coverage of the core concepts and frameworks of business continuity planning, enterprise risk management and project risk management, with an increased focus on risk in international markets, this is the definitive guide to dealing with the different types of risk an organization faces. With relevant international case studies and examples from both the private and public sectors, this third edition of Fundamentals of Risk Management is completely aligned to ISO 31000. Including a thorough overview of the international risk standards and frameworks, it explores the different types of risk an organization faces, including hazard risks and uncertainties. This new edition includes an extended section with best-practice advice on analysing your organization's risk appetite and successfully implementing a company-wide strategy on risk, reinforced by enhanced resilience. Endorsed by the IRM and the core text for their International Certificate in Risk Management qualification, Fundamentals of Risk Management is the definitive professional text for risk managers.
Finally, the author explores the interconnection between ex-post risk measures, discusses various risk measure ... From the fundamentals of the subject of risk to the use of risk-adjusted performance measures in the context CARL R.
Author: Carl R. Bacon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Explore different measures of ex-post risk-adjusted performance measurement and learn to choose the correct one In the newly revised Second Edition of Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement, accomplished risk and investment expert Carl R. Bacon delivers an insightful, accessible, and real-world guide to ex-post risk measurement. The author bridges the gap between theory and practice, showing you how to apply the former to the latter without introducing unnecessary mathematical complexity. The book describes the fundamentals of risk in the asset management context and the descriptive statistics used to describe it. It builds on that foundation with detailed examinations of concepts like regression, drawdown, and partial moments, before moving on to topics like fixed income risk and Prospect Theory. With helpful additions that include recently developed measures of risk, supplementary explanatory sections, and six brand-new chapters, this book also offers: A practical classification of all ex-post risk measures and how they connect to one another An explanation of how risk-adjusted performance measures impact performance fees A discussion of risk measure dashboard designs Instructions on how appraisal measures should be used for manager selection Perfect for portfolio managers, asset owners, risk controllers, and investment performance analysts, Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement is an indispensable resource for anyone looking for a hands-on exploration of the buy-side, asset management perspective.
Here, the standard deviation is used as a measure of risk. risk dynamic risk liability risk uncertainty fundamental risk chance of loss degree of risk particular risk possibility of loss peril pure risk probability of loss hazard ...
Author: Emmett J. Vaughan
A new edition of the standard insurance text, revised to reflect changes that have occurred in the insurance industry and its environment since 1986. Incorporates changes wrought by the Risk Retention Act of 1986, the Tax Reform Act of 1986, the Revenue Act of 1987, and the Medicare Expansion Act of 1988. Covers legal changes, revisions in policy forms, and the introduction of new forms of insurance. As in previous editions, emphasis is on the insurance product and its use within a risk-management framework. The three sections cover the concept of risk, the nature of the insurance device, and the principles of risk management. Specific contracts are examined in detail in order to illustrate insurance principles in action. An appendix contains specimen copies of most major types of policies.
Fundamentals of Risk Measurement and Aggregation for Insurance Applications Montserrat Guillen(B), Catalina Bolancé, and Miguel Santolino Department of Econometrics, Riskcenter-IREA, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 690, ...
Author: Vicenç Torra
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence, MDAI 2016, held in Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra, in September 2016. The 22 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 36 submissions. Providing a forum for researchers to discuss models for decision and information fusion (aggregation operators) and their applications to AI, the papers address topics such as decision making, information fusion, social networks, data mining, and related subjects. Applications to data science and privacy technologies, as well as to real world problems are also discussed.
25.6 mm Popov Lyon Hollcroft Second Edition Risk Assessment Risk Assessment A Practical Guide to Assessing Operational. 254 x 178 mm Explore the fundamentals of risk assessment with references to the latest standards, methodologies, ...
Author: Georgi Popov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Risk assessments have been given more prominence as an element in an operational risk management system. This text explains how a wide array of risk assessment tools are used including: preliminary hazard analysis, job safety analysis, task analysis, job risk assessment, personnel protective equipment hazard assessment, What If / Checklist Analysis Methods, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA), and bowtie analysis, among others. Now in color and updated to reflect the latest standards, theories, and methodologies, this book provides the fundamentals on risk assessment, with practical applications, for undergraduate and graduate students and employed safety, health, and environmental professionals who recognize that they are expected to have risk assessment capabilities. The book includes interactive exercises, links, videos, and online risk assessment tools.