The Condition of DemocracyThe Condition of Democracy



In T. Biebricher & F. Vogelmann (Eds.), The birth of austerity: German ordoliberalism and contemporary neoliberalism (pp. 27–39). London: Rowman & Littlefield International. Bonefeld, W. (2012). Freedom and the strong state: on German ...

Author: Jürgen Mackert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000401912

Category:

Page: 198

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Recent years have seen contestations of democracy all around the globe. Democracy is challenged as a political as well as a normative term, and as a form of governance. Against the background of neoliberal transformation, populist mobilization, and xenophobic exclusion, but also of radical and emancipatory democratic projects, this collection offers a variety of critical and challenging perspectives on the condition of democracy in the 21st century. The volumes provide theoretical and empirical enquiries into the meaning and practice of liberal democracy, the erosion of democratic institutions, and the consequences for citizenship and everyday lives. With a pronounced focus on national and transnational politics and processes, as well as postcolonial and settler colonial contexts, individual contributions scrutinize the role of democratic societies, ideals, and ideologies of liberal democracy within global power geometries. By employing the multiple meanings of The Condition of Democracy, the collection addresses the preconditions of democratic rule, the state this form of governance is in, and the changing ways in which citizens can (still) act as the sovereign in liberal democratic societies. The books offer both challenging theoretical perspectives and rigorous empirical findings of how to conceive of democracy in our times, which will appeal to academics and students in social and political science, economics, and international relations amongst other fields. The focus on developments in the Middle East and North Africa will furthermore be of great usefulness to academics and the wider public interested in the repercussions of western democracy promotion as well as in contemporary struggles for democratization ‘from below’. During the last 50 years, liberal democracies have been exposed to a fundamental reorganization of their politico-economic structure that transformed them through the impact of neo-liberal economic doctrines focused on low taxation, free markets, and out-sourcing that have little regard in reality for democratic institutions or liberal values. The failures of the neoliberal ‘remedy’ for capitalism are now dramatically obvious through the banking crisis of 2008-2011, the increase in income inequality, the social and psychological damage caused by the austerity packages across Europe, and widespread dependence on experts whose influence over government policies typically goes without public scrutiny. While this has only accelerated the destruction of the social fabric in modern Western societies, the dramatic redistribution of wealth and an open 'politics for the rich' have also revealed the long-time well-covered alliance of the global oligarchy with the Far Right that has the effect of undermining democracy. The contributions to this volume discuss a wide variety of processes of transformation, the social consequences, dedemocratization and illiberalization of once liberal democracies through the destructive impact of neoliberal strategies. These strongly politico-economic contributions are complemented with general sociological analyses of a number of cultural aspects often neglected in analyses of democracy.

Ordoliberalism and European Economic PolicyOrdoliberalism and European Economic Policy



In T. Biebricher & F. Vogelmann (Eds.), The birth of austerity: German ordoliberalism and contemporary neoliberalism (pp. 27–39). London, UK: Rowman & Littlefield. Buchanan, J. (2004). Constitutional efficiency and the European Central ...

Author: Malte Dold

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429510694

Category:

Page: 276

View: 334

This volume takes a broad perspective on the recent debate on the role of German ordoliberalism in shaping European economic policy before and after the eurozone crisis. It shows how ordoliberal scholars explain the institutional origins of the eurozone crisis, and presents creative policy proposals for the future of the European economy. Ordoliberal discourse both attempts to offer political solutions to socioeconomic challenges, and to find an ideal market order that fosters individual freedom and social cohesion. This tension between realpolitik and economic utopia reflects the wider debate on how far economic theory shapes, and is shaped by, historical contingencies and institutions. The volume will be of interest to policymakers as well as research scholars, and graduate students from various disciplines ranging from economics to political science, history, and philosophy.

Ireland under austerityIreland under austerity



58 Al Campbell, 'The birth of neoliberalism in the United States', in Alfredo Saad Filho and Deborah Johnston (eds), Neoliberalism: A Critical Reader (London: Pluto), 2005, p. 189. 59 Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Chapter 2.

Author: Colin Coulter

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9781784996505

Category:

Page: 312

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A radical look at the Irish austerity measures and the attempts to prop up business and the banks at the expense of ordinary citizens, left to bear the brunt of conditions they did not cause. Many of these contributors predicted Ireland's rapid cyle of boom and bust, even at the height of the Celtic Tiger boom.

Youth Unemployment and Job PrecariousnessYouth Unemployment and Job Precariousness



This book explores the relationship between youth labour market marginality and political participation, focusing on the example of Portugal and the role played by austerity policies in shaping patterns of activism.

Author: David Cairns

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137562807

Category:

Page: 191

View: 515

This book explores the relationship between youth labour market marginality and political participation, focusing on the example of Portugal and the role played by austerity policies in shaping patterns of activism. Through integrating primary and secondary empirical evidence with key ideas from classical and contemporary Sociology, the authors illustrate some of the key features of youth unemployment and job precariousness, also highlighting trends in formal and informal activist activities. Central to Youth Unemployment and Job Precariousness is the argument that following the onset of the economic crisis, there has been the birth of what we the authors term 'an austerity generation', comprised of young people facing difficulties in the labour market and uncertain futures. The book also highlights the difficulties young people have in making a political response to austerity, as well as their hopes for the future, including the need to raise consciousness about youth labour market marginalization and to return to more accountable forms of democracy.

The Moral Economy of ActivationThe Moral Economy of Activation



Biebricher, T. and Vogelmann, F. (eds) (2017) The birth of austerity: German ordoliberalism and contemporary neoliberalism. Rowman & Littlefield International. Blair, T. and Schroeder, G. (1998) 'Europe: The Third Way/Die Neue Mitte', ...

Author: Hansen, Magnus

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 9781447349969

Category:

Page: 250

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Activation policies which promote and enforce labour market participation continue to proliferate in Europe and constitute the reform blueprint from centre-left to centre-right, as well as for most international organizations. Through an in-depth study of four major reforms in Denmark and France, this book maps how co-existing ideas are mobilised to justify, criticise and reach activation compromises and how their morality sediment into the instruments governing the unemployed. By rethinking the role of ideas and morality in policy changes, this book illustrates how the moral economy of activation leads to a permanent behaviourist testing of the unemployed in public debate as well as in local jobcentres.

Conservative Liberalism Ordo liberalism and the StateConservative Liberalism Ordo liberalism and the State



The Birth of Austerity : German OrdoLiberalism and Contemporary Neo - Liberalism . London : Rowman and Littlefield International . Biedenkopf , K. ( 1969 ) . Wirtschaftsordnung ist Rechtsordnung . Bonn : Wirtschaftsrat der CDU .

Author: Kenneth Dyson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192596208

Category:

Page: 544

View: 197

This book uses extensive original archival and elite interview research to examine the attempt to rejuvenate liberalism as a means of disciplining democracy and the market through a new rule-based economic and political order. This rebirth took the form of conservative liberalism and, in its most developed form, Ordo-liberalism. It occurred against the historical background of the great transformational crisis of liberalism in the first part of the twentieth century. Conservative liberalism evolved as a cross-national phenomenon. It included such eminent and cultured liberal economists as James Buchanan, Frank Knight, Henry Simons, Ralph Hawtrey, Jacques Rueff, Luigi Einaudi, Walter Eucken, Friedrich Hayek, Alfred Müller-Armack, Wilhelm Röpke, Alexander Rüstow, and Paul van Zeeland, as well as leading lawyers like Louis Brandeis, Franz Böhm, and Maurice Hauriou. Conservative liberals also played a formative role in establishing new international networks, notably the Mont Pèlerin Society. The book investigates the rich intellectual inheritance of this variant of new liberalism from aristocratic liberalism, ethical philosophy, and religious thought. It also locates the social basis of conservative liberalism and Ordo-liberalism in the cultivated bourgeois intelligentsia. The book goes on to examine the attempts to embed this new disciplinary form of liberalism in Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and the United States, and to consider the determinants of its varying significance across space and over time. It concludes by assessing the historical significance and contemporary relevance of conservative liberalism and Ordo-liberalism as liberalism confronts a new transformational crisis at the beginning of the new millennium. Is their promise of disciplining democracy and the market a hollow one?

Political Economy and International Order in Interwar EuropePolitical Economy and International Order in Interwar Europe



In The Birth of Austerity: German Ordoliberalism and Contemporary Neoliberalism, edited by Thomas Biebricher and Frieder Vogelmann, 27–39. London: Rowman & Littlefield. Bonefeld, Werner. 2017. The Strong State and the Free Economy.

Author: Alexandre M. Cunha

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030471026

Category:

Page: 434

View: 494

Standard histories of European integration emphasize the immediate aftermath of World War II as the moment when the seeds of the European Union were first sown. However, the interwar years witnessed a flurry of concern with the reconstruction of the world order, generating arguments that cut across the different social sciences, then plunged in a period of disciplinary soul-searching and feverish activism. Economics was no exception: several of the most prominent interwar economists, such as F. A. Hayek, Jan Tinbergen, Lionel Robbins, François Perroux, J. M. Keynes and Robert Triffin, contributed directly to larger public discussions on peace, order and stability. This edited volume combines these different strands of historical narrative into a unified framework, showing how political economy was integral to the interwar literature on international relations and, conversely, how economists were eager to incorporate international politics into their own concerns. The book brings together a group of scholars with varied disciplinary backgrounds, whose combined perspectives allow us to explore three analytical layers. The first part studies how different forms of economic knowledge, from economic programming to international finance, were used in the quest for a stable European order. The second part focuses on the existence of conflicting expectations about the role of social scientific knowledge, either as a source of technical solutions or as an input for enlightened public discussion. The third part illustrates how certain ideas and beliefs found concrete expression in specific institutional settings, which amplified their political leverage. The three parts are enclosed by an introductory essay, laying out the broad topics explored in the volume, and a substantial postscript tying all the historical threads together.

SpartaSparta



This argument might also take on added force if we recall that an industry of perioikoi as manufacturers could produce for perioikoi as consumers who might not have been subject to the full force of Spartan austerity.24 The birth of the ...

Author: Stephen Hodkinson

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 9781910589403

Category:

Page: 300

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This is the 7th volume from the International Sparta Seminar, in the series begun in 1989 by Anton Powell with Stephen Hodkinson. The volume is both thematic and eclectic. Ephraim David and Yoann Le Tallec treat respectively the politics of nudity at Sparta and the role of athletes in forming the Spartan state. Nicolas Richer examines the significance of animals depicted in Lakonian art; Andrew Scott asks what Lakonian figured pottery reveals of local consumerism. Nino Luraghi and Paul Christesen deal respectively with the way in which Sparta was viewed by Messenians and by Ephorus. Jean Ducat treats 'the ghost of the Lakedaimonian state', a major study of formal relations between Spartiate and perioikic communities. Thomas Figueira considers how Spartan women policed masculine behaviour. Anton Powell traces the development of Spartan reactions to political divination in the classical period.

Bhagavad G t Bhagavad G t



... 9 , 23 without attachment in any direction II / 57 birth of attachment , from which grasping desire is born II / 62 ... 53 belonging to one fit by birth for the divine issue XVI / 1 certain austerity not ordained by teaching XVII ...

Author: Richard Gotshalk

Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publ.

ISBN: 8120800060

Category:

Page: 282

View: 855

The Bhagavad Gita is a dramatic poem which forms a small part of the great epic, the Mahabharata. The poem is the dialogue through which Arjuna`s doubts are resolved by Krsna`s teaching about the nature and place of action in the ultimate reality of things. The present translation is supplemented by a commentary; both seek to emphasize how the teaching is rooted in the concrete situation, and how its order and structure reflect the changing condition of the conversants and the purpose of the conversation. Footnotes and notes are included to clarify the Sanskrit, to indicate alternative translations, and to note relevant comments from other commentators and translators.