This volume addresses questions such as these and presents cutting edge research and theory that explores how readers determine text relevance (i.e., the different values they assign to information as they read), how relevance affects ...
Author: Gregory Schraw
Why do people from similar backgrounds who read the same text construct different meanings? Is there a question behind every reading goal, such that reading is an interactive process of asking and answering of questions? Do people who believe that knowledge is dynamic construct meaning differently than those who believe that knowledge is certain? This volume addresses questions such as these and presents cutting edge research and theory that explores how readers determine text relevance (i.e., the different values they assign to information as they read), how relevance affects understanding, and the implications of these studies for theories of text comprehension. This volume documents in a compelling manner the ongoing international effort to understand how text relevance affects reading and comprehension. Contributing authors represent major academic institutions on three continents and nine countries, demonstrating the multinational interest in text relevance. Why is there so much interest in text relevance? Learners are inundated with unprecedented amounts of information, and increased research regarding how readers process nontraditional texts (e.g., documents on the web) and multiple documents, for example, underscores the importance of understanding how readers determine the relevance of text information for personal, academic, or professional goals, which can enable educators to design learning situations that help learners get the most out of reading.
Text relevance and learning from text. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. McCrudden, M.T., & Schraw, G. (2007). Relevance and goal-focusing in text ...
Author: M. Anne Britt
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Literacy Beyond Text Comprehension aims to systematically investigate how readers interpret reading tasks within a situation, and how that interpretation influences reading behavior and comprehension. Presenting a new model of REading as problem SOLVing (RESOLV), the authors describe reading comprehension in terms of how a reader adopts goals within a particular situation that then guide what is read, when, and how. By applying the RESOLV model to a range of reading situations, this book provides evidence to suggest that there is no unitary understanding of a task, because individuals bring their own goals and characteristics to the situation; as such, it demonstrates the importance of understanding how a reader (e.g., student, test-taker, employee completing a work task) represents the context and the specific assignment. Written by internationally recognized learning sciences scholars, Literacy Beyond Text Comprehension advances the state of the art in reading research, but also seeks to inform a broader range of audiences, including those interested in the teaching and the assessment of reading.
The Web-centric approach of collecting relevance feedback leverages user click-through behavior, which is discussed later. Learning the importance of zones ...
Author: Charu C. Aggarwal
Text analytics is a field that lies on the interface of information retrieval,machine learning, and natural language processing, and this textbook carefully covers a coherently organized framework drawn from these intersecting topics. The chapters of this textbook is organized into three categories: - Basic algorithms: Chapters 1 through 7 discuss the classical algorithms for machine learning from text such as preprocessing, similarity computation, topic modeling, matrix factorization, clustering, classification, regression, and ensemble analysis. - Domain-sensitive mining: Chapters 8 and 9 discuss the learning methods from text when combined with different domains such as multimedia and the Web. The problem of information retrieval and Web search is also discussed in the context of its relationship with ranking and machine learning methods. - Sequence-centric mining: Chapters 10 through 14 discuss various sequence-centric and natural language applications, such as feature engineering, neural language models, deep learning, text summarization, information extraction, opinion mining, text segmentation, and event detection. This textbook covers machine learning topics for text in detail. Since the coverage is extensive,multiple courses can be offered from the same book, depending on course level. Even though the presentation is text-centric, Chapters 3 to 7 cover machine learning algorithms that are often used indomains beyond text data. Therefore, the book can be used to offer courses not just in text analytics but also from the broader perspective of machine learning (with text as a backdrop). This textbook targets graduate students in computer science, as well as researchers, professors, and industrial practitioners working in these related fields. This textbook is accompanied with a solution manual for classroom teaching.
several Characteristics of electronic text that we believe are especially relevant to reading and learning from text—based material.
Author: Cynthia R. Hynd
This volume is an attempt to synthesize the understandings we have about reading to learn. Although learning at all ages is discussed in this volume, the main focus is on middle and high school classrooms--critical spaces of learning and thinking. The amount of knowledge presented in written form is increasing, and the information we get from texts is often conflicting. We are in a knowledge explosion that leaves us reeling and may effectively disenfranchise those who are not keeping up. There has never been a more crucial time for students to understand, learn from, and think critically about the information in various forms of text. Thus, understanding what it means to learn is vital for all educators. Learning from text is a complex matter that includes student factors (social, ethnic, and cultural differences, as well as varying motivations, self-perceptions, goals, and needs); instructional and teacher factors; and disciplinary and social factors. One important goal of the book is to encourage practicing teachers to learn to consider their students in new ways--to see them as being influenced by, and as influencing, not just the classroom but the total fabric of the disciplines they are learning. Equally important, it is intended to foster further research efforts--from local studies of classrooms by teachers to large-scale studies that produce generalizable understandings about learning from text. This volume--a result of the editor's and contributors' work with the National Reading Research Center--will be of interest to all researchers, graduate students, practicing teachers, and teachers in training who are interested in understanding the issues that are central to improving students' learning from text.
Relevance processes in multiple document comprehension. In M. T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Text Relevance and Learning from Text (pp.
Author: Rosen, Yigal
Publisher: IGI Global
Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development presents comprehensive research and discussions on the importance of practical education focused on digital literacy and the problem-solving skills necessary in everyday life. Featuring timely, research-based chapters exploring the broad scope of digital and computer-based learning strategies including, but not limited to, enhanced classroom experiences, assessment programs, and problem-solving training, this publication is an essential reference source for academicians, researchers, professionals, and policymakers interested in the practical application of technology-based learning for next-generation education.
Causal inferences in the comprehension of narrative texts. ... In M. T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds), Text relevance and learning from text.
Author: John Sabatini
Publisher: R&L Education
In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition has been advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language, and experimental comparison studies of effective instruction. Some of the science of reading has emerged from the theory and research into the realm of practice and policy. Yet the science and practice of measuring “reading comprehension” has remained relatively immune to much of this foundational knowledge. Measuring Up questions the traditional format of reading comprehension tests, typically a single series of questions asked about a series of passages, and offers ideas and innovations we might expect in a next generation of 21st century reading assessments. Sabatini, Albro, and O'Reilly believe that in light of the move towards Common Core State Standards and assessments, as well as significant national investments in reading and literacy education, it is a critical and opportune time to bring together the research and measurement community to address fundamental issues of measuring reading comprehension, both in theory and in practice.
Text Relevance and Learning from Text, Information Age, Greenwich, CT. Rouet, J. and B. Coutelet (2008), “The Acquisition of Document Search Strategies in ...
Publisher: OECD Publishing
This report presents the conceptual foundations of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), now in its seventh cycle of comprehensive and rigorous international surveys of student knowledge, skills and well-being. Like previous cycles, the 2018 assessment covered reading, mathematics and science, with the major focus this cycle on reading literacy, plus an evaluation of students’ global competence – their ability to understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others. Financial literacy was also offered as an optional assessment.
obviously be verified with other passages and longer multiple-choice tests, seems to suggest that highlighting the information which is more relevant, ...
Author: Bernadette Van Hout-Wolters
Publisher: CRC Press
This book deals with the significance of different text structures and its cognitive processing in learning from texts. It discusses the effect of learning abilities and attitudes for learning from texts, and focuses on the significance of processing and learning strategies for text comprehension.
Clarifyingreaders'goalsforlearning fromexpositorysciencetexts.InM.T.McCrudden,J.P.Magliano,&G.Schraw(Eds.), Text relevance and learning from text (pp.
Author: Perry Klein
Writing as a learning activity offers an account of the potentials of writing as a powerful tool for facilitating learning and making it more profound and productive in a variety of disciplines and collaborative contexts at different school levels.
As such , they allow extracting relations after shallow text processing only . ... Naturally , such patterns have a clear relevance for ontology learning .
Author: Paul Buitelaar
Publisher: IOS Press
The latest title in Black Library's premium line. Perturabo - master of siegecraft, and executioner of Olympia. Long has he lived in the shadow of his more favoured primarch brothers, frustrated by the mundane and ignominious duties which regularly fall to his Legion. When Fulgrim offers him the chance to lead an expedition in search of an ancient and destructive xenos weapon, the Iron Warriors and the Emperor's Children unite and venture deep into the heart of the great warp-rift known only as 'the Eye'. Pursued by a ragged band of survivors from Isstvan V and the revenants of a dead eldar world, they must work quickly if they are to unleash the devastating power of the Angel Exterminatus
It makes use of various NLP tools Learning relevant knowledge from texts requires application of NLP tools: what can be identified are terms, ...
Author: P. Buitelaar
Publisher: IOS Press
The promise of the Semantic Web is that future web pages will be annotated not only with bright colors and fancy fonts as they are now, but with annotation extracted from large domain ontologies that specify, to a computer in a way that it can exploit, what information is contained on the given web page. The presence of this information will allow software agents to examine pages and to make decisions about content as humans are able to do now. The classic method of building an ontology is to gather a committee of experts in the domain to be modeled by the ontology, and to have this committee agree on which concepts cover the domain, on which terms describe which concepts, on what relations exist between each concept and what the possible attributes of each concept are. All ontology learning systems begin with an ontology structure, which may just be an empty logical structure, and a collection of texts in the domain to be modeled. An ontology learning system can be seen as an interplay between three things: an existing ontology, a collection of texts, and lexical syntactic patterns. The Semantic Web will only be a reality if we can create structured, unambiguous ontologies that model domain knowledge that computers can handle. The creation of vast arrays of such ontologies, to be used to mark-up web pages for the Semantic Web, can only be accomplished by computer tools that can extract and build large parts of these ontologies automatically. This book provides the state-of-art of many automatic extraction and modeling techniques for ontology building. The maturation of these techniques will lead to the creation of the Semantic Web.
Text relevance and learning from text, Information Age Publishing. White, S., J. Chen and B. Forsyth (2010), "Reading-Related Literacy Activities of ...
Publisher: OECD Publishing
This is one of six volumes that present the results of the PISA 2018 survey, the seventh round of the triennial assessment. Volume I, What Students Know and Can Do, provides a detailed examination of student performance in reading, mathematics and science, and describes how performance has changed since previous PISA assessments.
The text-to-self connection engages learners in making personal connections with a text through ... Explain the personal relevance of this sentence to you.
Author: Kim Potowski
The Routledge Handbook of Spanish as a Heritage Language brings together contributions from leading linguists, educators and Latino Studies scholars involved in teaching and working with Spanish heritage language speakers. This state-of-the-art overview covers a range of topics within five broad areas: Spanish in U.S. public life, Spanish heritage language use and systems, educational contexts, Latino studies perspectives and Spanish outside the U.S. The Routledge Handbook of Spanish as a Heritage Language addresses for the first time the linguistic, educational and social aspects of heritage Spanish speakers in one volume making it an indispensable reference for anyone working with Spanish as a heritage language.
Reinforcement learning differs from supervised learning in that the training text is not labeled relevant or irrelevant ; instead it is assigned a reward .
Author: Manu Konchady
Text Mining Application Programming teaches software developers how to mine the vast amounts of information available on the Web, internal networks, and desktop files and turn it into usable data. The book helps developers understand the problems associated with managing unstructured text, and explains how to build your own mining tools using standard statistical methods from information theory, artificial intelligence, and operations research. Each of the topics covered are thoroughly explained and then a practical implementation is provided.The book begins with a brief overview of text data, where it can be found, and the typical search engines and tools used to search and gather this text. It details how to build tools for extracting and using the text, and covers the mathematics behind many of the algorithms used in building these tools. From there you'll learn how to build tokens from text, construct indexes, and detect patterns in text. You'll also find methods to extract the names of people, places, and organizations from an email, a news article, or a Web page. The next portion of the book teaches you how to find information on the Web, the structure of the Web, and how to build spiders to crawl the Web. Text categorization is also described in the context of managing email. The final part of the book covers information monitoring, summarization, and a simple Question & Answer (Q&A) system. The code used in the book is written in Perl, but knowledge of Perl is not necessary to run the software. Developers with an intermediate level of experience with Perl can customize the software. Although the book is about programming, methods are explained with English-like pseudocode and the source code is provided on the CD-ROM. After reading this book, you'll be ready to tap into the bevy of information available online in ways you never thought possible.
A central component in the evaluation process of each sentence's importance, of participant's involvement and of collaboration throughout a conversation is ...
Author: Mihai Dascălu
With the advent and increasing popularity of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and e-learning technologies, the need of automatic assessment and of teacher/tutor support for the two tightly intertwined activities of comprehension of reading materials and of collaboration among peers has grown significantly. In this context, a polyphonic model of discourse derived from Bakhtin’s work as a paradigm is used for analyzing both general texts and CSCL conversations in a unique framework focused on different facets of textual cohesion. As specificity of our analysis, the individual learning perspective is focused on the identification of reading strategies and on providing a multi-dimensional textual complexity model, whereas the collaborative learning dimension is centered on the evaluation of participants’ involvement, as well as on collaboration assessment. Our approach based on advanced Natural Language Processing techniques provides a qualitative estimation of the learning process and enhances understanding as a “mediator of learning” by providing automated feedback to both learners and teachers or tutors. The main benefits are its flexibility, extensibility and nevertheless specificity for covering multiple stages, starting from reading classroom materials, to discussing on specific topics in a collaborative manner and finishing the feedback loop by verbalizing metacognitive thoughts.
Based on whichever text representation has been created, each sentence is then assigned a score indicating its importance.
Author: Shashi Narayan
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Text production has many applications. It is used, for instance, to generate dialogue turns from dialogue moves, verbalise the content of knowledge bases, or generate English sentences from rich linguistic representations, such as dependency trees or abstract meaning representations. Text production is also at work in text-to-text transformations such as sentence compression, sentence fusion, paraphrasing, sentence (or text) simplification, and text summarisation. This book offers an overview of the fundamentals of neural models for text production. In particular, we elaborate on three main aspects of neural approaches to text production: how sequential decoders learn to generate adequate text, how encoders learn to produce better input representations, and how neural generators account for task-specific objectives. Indeed, each text-production task raises a slightly different challenge (e.g, how to take the dialogue context into account when producing a dialogue turn, how to detect and merge relevant information when summarising a text, or how to produce a well-formed text that correctly captures the information contained in some input data in the case of data-to-text generation). We outline the constraints specific to some of these tasks and examine how existing neural models account for them. More generally, this book considers text-to-text, meaning-to-text, and data-to-text transformations. It aims to provide the audience with a basic knowledge of neural approaches to text production and a roadmap to get them started with the related work. The book is mainly targeted at researchers, graduate students, and industrials interested in text production from different forms of inputs.
Checking for Relevance Relevance refers to how well a text fulfills your reading purpose. If you're reading to learn something new, a relevant text may ...
Author: Dave Kemper
Publisher: Cengage Learning
FUSION: INTEGRATED READING AND WRITING, Book 2 is a developmental English book for reading and writing at the essay level. It connects the reading and writing processes so that they are fully reciprocal and reinforcing, using parallel strategies that guide students in analyzing reading to generate writing. FUSION teaches critical reading strategies in conjunction with the shared writing traits, such as main idea, details, and organization, and teaches the types of writing (including research) that students will encounter in their future courses. Grammar instruction is integrated in authentic writing, using high-interest professional and student models. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Authentic. Texts. for. Language. Learning. The. Pedagogical. Rationale ... as well as those relevant to the learners; challenge, in that authentic texts are ...
Author: Freda Mishan
Publisher: Intellect Books
This book puts forward an authenticity-centred approach to the design of materials for language learning. The premise of the approach is that language learning should be based on authentic materials drawn from a variety of genres found in the target language culture, and that the learning tasks involving these materials should be correspondingly authentic, by entailing interactions that are consistent with the original communicative purpose of the authentic text. It provides both a theoretical grounding to the authenticity-centred approach, and demonstrates its practical application in a teaching task reference section. In outline, the book: • Refines a definition of authenticity in the context of language pedagogy. • Traces the historical background to authenticity in language learning back over one millennium. • Grounds the use of authentic materials in language learning in L2 acquisition research. • Gives a critical analysis of the authenticity of contemporary language study course-books. • Discusses the use of seven authentic genres for language learning; broadcasting, newspapers, advertisements, music and song, film, literature and ICT (information and communications technology). • Offers a set of practical principles for the design of authentic learning tasks. • Includes a reference section providing step-by-step instruction for the design and classroom procedure of learning tasks for materials taken from each of the seven genres.
Instead, the fourth-grade students allocated attention to the text elements ... For skilled studiers, person-relevant learning is not attentionintensive.
This volume reflects current research on the cognitive strategies of autonomous learning. Topics such as metacognition, attribution theory, self-efficacy, direct instruction, attention, and problem solving are discussed by leading researchers in learning and study strategies. The contributors to this volume acknowledge and address the concerns of educators at the primary, secondary, and postsecondary school levels. The blend of theory and practice is an important feature of this volume.