Science Driven InstrumentationScience Driven Instrumentation



Abstract: In this dissertation we review the author's work in experimental astrophysics including several cryogenic infrared instruments built at the University of Florida Department of Astronomy, and applications to two science cases.

Author: Richard Stelter

Publisher:

ISBN: 0530000474

Category:

Page: 220

View: 859

Abstract: In this dissertation we review the author's work in experimental astrophysics including several cryogenic infrared instruments built at the University of Florida Department of Astronomy, and applications to two science cases. Exploratory science and instrumentation go hand-in-hand. New measurements require new instruments, and new instruments require domain-specific knowledge in order to be effective. Our work focuses on instruments that will revolutionize the science that can be done both in our local Solar neighborhood and at the Galactic Center (GC) using novel instrumentation techniques and tools such as slicers, 3D printers, and bolt-and-go design. These instruments include one-off prototype technology demonstrators, visitor-class, and facility-class instruments for one of the largest telescopes on Earth: the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The first science case examines the Crab Nebula Pulsar Wind Nebula, in which we attempt to make the first (to date) quantified velocity measurements. Our second science case looks toward the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, and walks through our attempt to build up an astronomical extinction map. At the GC, extinction due to scattering and absorption by dust and gas is severe enough that less than 1 in 10 trillion visible-wavelength photons make it to our telescopes. Even at longer wavelengths in the near-infrared less than 1 in 100 photons propagate through the dust and gas. Our extinction map uses a Bayesian approach and surface brightness photometry using both ground- and space-based observations to estimate both the absolute amount of extinction and the extinction law, which is tied to the physical properties of the dust (such as size and composition). We present extinction maps and de-reddened color-color diagrams of ground-based photometry, useful for target selection for X-Ray binary infrared counterparts and other population studies. We find that there is no variation spatially of the extinction law at the GC. Dissertation Discovery Company and University of Florida are dedicated to making scholarly works more discoverable and accessible throughout the world. This dissertation, "Science-Driven Instrumentation" by Richard Constantine Stelter, was obtained from University of Florida and is being sold with permission from the author. A digital copy of this work may also be found in the university's institutional repository, [email protected] The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation.

Optical Engineering ScienceOptical Engineering Science



Science-driven requirements will identify a spectral range across which the instrument is required to perform and, critically, a spectral resolution that ...

Author: Stephen Rolt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119302803

Category:

Page: 664

View: 263

A practical guide for engineers and students that covers a wide range of optical design and optical metrology topics Optical Engineering Science offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of the science of optical engineering. The book bridges the gap between the basic theoretical principles of classical optics and the practical application of optics in the commercial world. Written by a noted expert in the field, the book examines a range of practical topics that are related to optical design, optical metrology and manufacturing. The book fills a void in the literature by coving all three topics in a single volume. Optical engineering science is at the foundation of the design of commercial optical systems, such as mobile phone cameras and digital cameras as well as highly sophisticated instruments for commercial and research applications. It spans the design, manufacture and testing of space or aerospace instrumentation to the optical sensor technology for environmental monitoring. Optics engineering science has a wide variety of applications, both commercial and research. This important book: Offers a comprehensive review of the topic of optical engineering Covers topics such as optical fibers, waveguides, aspheric surfaces, Zernike polynomials, polarisation, birefringence and more Targets engineering professionals and students Filled with illustrative examples and mathematical equations Written for professional practitioners, optical engineers, optical designers, optical systems engineers and students, Optical Engineering Science offers an authoritative guide that covers the broad range of optical design and optical metrology topics and their applications.

Measurement Instrumentation and Sensors HandbookMeasurement Instrumentation and Sensors Handbook



Beyond these existing operational instruments, a host of science-driven experiments have operated to improve the knowledge base of the space radiation ...

Author: John G. Webster

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351833332

Category:

Page: 1921

View: 756

The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized according to measurement problem, the Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement volume of the Second Edition: Contains contributions from field experts, new chapters, and updates to all 98 existing chapters Covers sensors and sensor technology, time and frequency, signal processing, displays and recorders, and optical, medical, biomedical, health, environmental, electrical, electromagnetic, and chemical variables A concise and useful reference for engineers, scientists, academic faculty, students, designers, managers, and industry professionals involved in instrumentation and measurement research and development, Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition: Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement provides readers with a greater understanding of advanced applications.

Advanced Research Instrumentation and FacilitiesAdvanced Research Instrumentation and Facilities



Instrumentation has often been cited as the pacing factor of research; ... clinical, and environmental science, driven both by universities and by ...

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309097017

Category:

Page: 204

View: 609

In recent years, the instrumentation needs of the nation's research communities have changed and expanded. The need for particular instruments has become broader, crossing scientific and engineering disciplines. The growth of interdisciplinary research that focuses on problems defined outside the boundaries of individual disciplines demands more instrumentation. Instruments that were once of interest only to specialists are now required by a wide array of scientists to solve critical research problems. The need for entirely new types of instrumentsâ€"such as distributed networks, cybertools, and sensor arraysâ€"is increasing. Researchers are increasingly dependent on advanced instruments that require highly specialized knowledge and training for their proper operation and use. The National Academies Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy Committee on Advanced Research Instrumentation was asked to describe the current programs and policies of the major federal research agencies for advanced research instrumentation, the current status of advanced mid-sized research instrumentation on university campuses, and the challenges faced by each. The committee was then asked to evaluate the utility of existing federal programs and to determine the need for and, if applicable, the potential components of an interagency program for advanced research instrumentation.

Measurement Instrumentation and Sensors Handbook Second EditionMeasurement Instrumentation and Sensors Handbook Second Edition



Beyond these existing operational instruments, a host of science-driven experiments have operated to improve the knowledge base of the space radiation ...

Author: John G. Webster

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439848913

Category:

Page: 1921

View: 976

The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized according to measurement problem, the Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement volume of the Second Edition: Contains contributions from field experts, new chapters, and updates to all 98 existing chapters Covers sensors and sensor technology, time and frequency, signal processing, displays and recorders, and optical, medical, biomedical, health, environmental, electrical, electromagnetic, and chemical variables A concise and useful reference for engineers, scientists, academic faculty, students, designers, managers, and industry professionals involved in instrumentation and measurement research and development, Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, Second Edition: Electromagnetic, Optical, Radiation, Chemical, and Biomedical Measurement provides readers with a greater understanding of advanced applications.

Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the TroposphereTransport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere



JETDLAG), thescience oriented experimental subprojects (ALPTRAC, ASE, ... The second route istodevelop new instruments as partof the science drivenprojects.

Author: Peter Borrell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642597183

Category:

Page: 474

View: 508

A major environmental concern is the increasing burden on all scales of photo-oxidants, acidifying substances and potential nutrients in the troposphere. These lead to episodes of summer smog, and appreciable damage to eco-systems both on land and at sea. Underlying the environmental effects is the complex scientific problem of linking the man-made and biological emissions to the myriad chemical reactions that transform the pollutants as they are transported to and deposited in the surroundings and also pristine areas remote from the sources. The project, the scientific results of which are described in this book, was set up to study the problem in an inter-disciplinary way by co-ordinating the work of more than 150 research groups in some 20 countries.

Photographic Instrumentation Science and Engineering Its Military Equipments Techniques and Applications Oct 1965Photographic Instrumentation Science and Engineering Its Military Equipments Techniques and Applications Oct 1965



5x10-5 5x104 2-3 / 8 " X75 " B AIR DRIVEN NONE REQUIRED BECKMAN & WHITLEY MODEL 770 32800 54450 2x10-5 81 X2 3x10-9 18x10-9 32 " x13 " X8W 81 OF 70MM 75 LB ...

Author: United States. Naval Air Systems Command

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:31951D03306000G

Category:

Page: 714

View: 563

MICROPROCESSOR BASED AGRI INSTRUMENTATIONMICROPROCESSOR BASED AGRI INSTRUMENTATION



Indian agriculture will have to shift from resource- and inputbased growth to knowledge- and science-based growth triggered by innovations and the ...

Author: KRISHNA KANT

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 9788120340862

Category:

Page: 476

View: 576

This book provides the fundamental concepts of system design using microprocessors in the field of agriculture instrumentation. It begins with an introduction to the field of agriculture and application of instrumentation in agriculture, and the book then covers the transducers specific to the agricultural field. The binary number system and arithmetic are covered as the basic building block of digital circuits and computer organization. The microprocessor basics and Intel 8085 hardware and software have been discussed in detail. The book describes microprocessor peripheral inter-facing and its support chips such as Intel 8225, Intel 8253 and Intel 8279 along with their applications. It discusses analog to digital and digital to analog interface, CRT terminal interface and printer interface. In addition, the book includes case studies on various microprocessor applications in agriculture, such as microprocessor-based system design for grain moisture, safe grain storage, soil nutrient estimation and drip irrigation. Finally, the book ends with an advanced and futuristic topic on precision agriculture to give an exposure to students about future developments in the agricultural system. Key Features : • From concepts to design, the book follows a step-by-step approach. • Gives a large number of figures for easy understanding of theory. • Includes a good number of examples and end-of-chapter exercises both in the hardware and software sections. • Presents a number of case studies on the design of microprocessor-based agri-instrumentation systems. • Offers exercises on the case studies which can be used for further development of the concepts. The book is primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of agricultural engineering for their courses on agri instrumen-tation and microprocessor applications in agriculture.

Instrumentation Between Science State and IndustryInstrumentation Between Science State and Industry



Based on his experience in modern cell biology Grinnell has expanded the concept of a thought collective (see Grinell 1992). He maintains, in keeping with ...

Author: B. Joerges

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401090322

Category:

Page: 272

View: 853

these. In this book, we appropriate their conception of research-technology, and ex tend it to many other phenomena which are less stable and less localized in time and space than the Zeeman/Cotton situation. In the following pages, we use the concept for instances where research activities are orientated primarily toward technologies which facilitate both the production of scientific knowledge and the production of other goods. In particular, we use the tenn for instances where instruments and meth ods· traverse numerous geographic and institutional boundaries; that is, fields dis tinctly different and distant from the instruments' and methods' initial focus. We suggest that instruments such as the ultra-centrifuge, and the trajectories of the men who devise such artefacts, diverge in an interesting way from other fonns of artefacts and careers in science, metrology and engineering with which students of science and technology are more familiar. The instrument systems developed by re search-technologists strike us as especially general, open-ended, and flexible. When tailored effectively, research-technology instruments potentially fit into many niches and serve a host of unrelated applications. Their multi-functional character distin guishes them from many other devices which are designed to address specific, nar rowly defined problems in a circumscribed arena in and outside of science. Research technology activities link universities, industry, public and private research or me trology establishments, instrument-making finns, consulting companies, the military, and metrological agencies. Research-technology practitioners do not follow the career path of the traditional academic or engineering professional.

3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy



Despite the fact that an instrument with an unreported efliciency is much like a ... choice of merit function is complicated, and must be science driven.

Author: E. Mediavilla

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521895415

Category:

Page: 271

View: 902

Lectures from the seventeenth Winter School of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute on new 3D spectroscopy techniques and data.

Inventing a Space MissionInventing a Space Mission



This strong instrumentation and astronomy synergy ensured that the HIFI instrument capabilities were strongly science-driven.

Author: Vincent Minier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319600246

Category:

Page: 280

View: 843

This book describes prominent technological achievements within a very successful space science mission: the Herschel space observatory. Focusing on the various processes of innovation it offers an analysis and discussion of the social, technological and scientific context of the mission that paved the way to its development. It addresses the key question raised by these processes in our modern society, i.e.: how knowledge management of innovation set the conditions for inventing the future? In that respect the book is based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the programmatic complexity of Herschel, with inputs from space scientists, managers, philosophers, and engineers. This book is addressed to decision makers, not only in space science, but also in other industries and sciences using or building large machines. It is also addressed to space engineers and scientists as well as students in science and management.

Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation Towards the Fourth Generation Light SourcesMagnetism and Synchrotron Radiation Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources



We highlight two recent science-driven instrumentation developments initiated at the ID12 beamline: the first one deals with measurements of x-ray Magnetic ...

Author: Eric Beaurepaire

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783319030326

Category:

Page: 344

View: 103

Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

Grid Enabled Remote InstrumentationGrid Enabled Remote Instrumentation



... range of Web 2.0 components and environments available for rapid and cost-effective development of software systems for instrument- driven e-Science. 4.

Author: Franco Davoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387096636

Category:

Page: 596

View: 794

Grid architectures, which are viewed as tools for the integration of distributed resources, play a significant role as managers of computational resources, but also as aggregators of measurement instrumentation and pervasive large-scale data acquisition platforms. The functionality of a grid architecture allows managing, maintaining, and exploiting hetereogeneous instrumentation and acquisition devices in a unifed way by providing standardized interfaces and common work environments to their users. This result is achieved through the properties of isolation from the physical network and from the peculiarites of the instrumentation granted by standard middleware together with secure and flexibile mechanisms which seek, access, and aggregate distributed resources. This book focuses on a number of aspects related to the effective exploitation of remote instrumentation on the grid. These include middleware architecture, high speed networking in support of grid applications, wireless grid for acquisition devices and sensor networks, quality of service provisioning for real time control, and measurement instrumentation.

Handbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation ScienceHandbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation Science



Three major classes of HPLC pumps are currently in use: constant-pressure pumps; syringe-based or displacement pumps; and constant flow pumps.

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123757274

Category:

Page: 880

View: 949

Handbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation Science, Volume 1 provides concise overviews and summaries of the main methods used for separation. It is based on the Encyclopedia of Separation Science. The handbook focuses on the principles of methods and instrumentation. It provides general concepts concerning the subject matter; it does not present specific procedures. This volume discusses the separation processes including affinity methods, analytical ultracentrifugation, centrifugation, chromatography, and use of decanter centrifuge and dye. Each methodology is defined and compared with other separation processes. It also provides specific techniques, principles, and theories concerning each process. Furthermore, the handbook presents the applications, benefits, and validation of the processes described in this book. This handbook is an excellent reference for biomedical researchers, environmental and production chemists, flavor and fragrance technologists, food and beverage technologists, academic and industrial librarians, and nuclear researchers. Students and novices will also find this handbook useful for practice and learning. One-stop source for information on separation methods General overviews for quick orientation Ease of use for finding results fast Expert coverage of major separation methods Coverage of techniques for all sizes of samples, pico-level to kilo-level

Instrumentation and Research Programmes for Small TelescopesInstrumentation and Research Programmes for Small Telescopes



Second, the programs discussed were science driven. They were well-defined and had specific goals in mind which, when obtained, would have an immediate ...

Author: J.B. Hearnshaw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401094337

Category:

Page: 482

View: 388

This volume is the proceedings of IAU Symposium No. 118 on "Instrumentation. and Research Programmes for Small Telescopes", where small telescopes were defined as those ground-based instruments with apertures less than 1.5m. The scientific goal of the symposium was to emphasise research programmes which were more suited to smaller tele scopes, on which frequent regular observations can be made. A wide variety of topics on instrumentation, photometry, spectroscopy and polarimetry of objects in the solar system to extragalactic systems were discussed. Each of the four scientific days of the symposium comprised a number of invited review papers, contributed oral papers and discussion sessions devoted purely to the large number (~4) of poster papers. An introductory paper on the research potential of small telescopes sets the scene for the symposium. The proceedings have then been divided into three sections. Section I: Telescopes and instrumentation; Section II: Photometric research programmes; Section III: Spectroscopic research programmes. The diversity of topics within each of these sections indicated the extent to which small telescopes have (and can) contribute greatly to astronomical research. Dr J.A. Graham's summary of the symposium, which illustrates the opportunities available with small telescopes, concludes these proceedings. As in all symposia, the importance of the discussion following each paper was realised. The discussion was recorded on tape (and wherever possible on questions and answer sheets), transcribed and then edited.

The Rise of Radio Astronomy in the NetherlandsThe Rise of Radio Astronomy in the Netherlands



... in the first place driven by applying—and improving—their instrumentation. ... instrumentationdriven, it was strongly science-driven in the Netherlands.

Author: Astrid Elbers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319490793

Category:

Page: 240

View: 738

Radio astronomy was born during the Second World War, but as this book explains, the history of early Dutch radio astronomy is in several respects rather anomalous in comparison to the development of radio astronomy in other countries. The author describes how these very differences led the Netherlands to become one of the world leaders in radio astronomy. Dominated by the Leiden astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort, the field embarked on an era of success, and to this day, the country still holds a leading position. To tell this story, the book focuses on three key events in the period 1940-1970, namely the construction of the radio telescopes in Kootwijk (1948), in Dwingeloo (1956), and in Westerbork (1970). These projects show that Dutch radio astronomers must not be seen as merely scientists, but also as strategic lobbyists, networkers and organizers in a specific political and economic context. It was in the process of planning, designing and constructing these instruments that the interests of the astronomers, industrial partners, politicians and lobby groups merged to create today's existing research centers for radio astronomy.