Reconsidering G r me The Private Life of The Snake Charmer in The United StatesReconsidering G r me The Private Life of The Snake Charmer in The United States



This paper is a study of Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Snake Charmer, 1879 in context with its yet examined life within the United States in the collection of the Clark family.

Author: Brandon David Acton-Bond

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1245254385

Category:

Page: 50

View: 928

This paper is a study of Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Snake Charmer, 1879 in context with its yet examined life within the United States in the collection of the Clark family. This painting rose to prominence upon publication of Edward Said's 1978 book Orientalism, where it was featured as its cover image. Since then, subsequent art historians have sutured the image to post-colonial methodologies, failing to acknowledge the material contexts with which it was collected and displayed. By examining these key contexts and players, new understandings about American orientalism and the role of race, class, gender and sexuality begin to emerge. Consequently, this paper seeks to unmask hidden readings of Gérôme's artwork, while re-orienting questions about the painting away from its depicted subject matter towards the owner as subject. By examining the mode of its private display next to Gérôme's Pollice Verso, 1872, and its relationship to Alfred Corning Clark, an alternative reading outside of existing art historical inquiry comes into view.

Blacks and Blackness in European Art of the Long Nineteenth CenturyBlacks and Blackness in European Art of the Long Nineteenth Century



... Peter Benson Miller, “Gérôme and Ethnographic Realism at the Salon of 1857,” in Reconsidering Gérôme, ed. Allan and Morton, 115. Gautier, “Gérome,” 34.

Author: AdrienneL. Childs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351573498

Category:

Page: 264

View: 435

Compelling and troubling, colorful and dark, black figures served as the quintessential image of difference in nineteenth-century European art; the essays in this volume further the investigation of constructions of blackness during this period. This collection marks a phase in the scholarship on images of blacks that moves beyond undifferentiated binaries like ?negative? and ?positive? that fail to reveal complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities. Essays that cover the late eighteenth through the early twentieth century explore the visuality of blackness in anti-slavery imagery, black women in Orientalist art, race and beauty in fin-de-si?e photography, the French brand of blackface minstrelsy, and a set of little-known images of an African model by Edvard Munch. In spite of the difficulty of resurrecting black lives in nineteenth-century Europe, one essay chronicles the rare instance of an American artist of color in mid-nineteenth-century Europe. With analyses of works ranging from G?cault's Raft of the Medusa, to portraits of the American actor Ira Aldridge, this volume provides new interpretations of nineteenth-century representations of blacks.

The Homoerotics of OrientalismThe Homoerotics of Orientalism



... in Ottoman and Orientalist Art and Travel Literature (Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2007), 8–11; Mary Roberts, “Gérôme in Istanbul,” Reconsidering Gérôme, ed.

Author: Joseph A. Boone

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231521826

Category:

Page: 520

View: 891

One of the largely untold stories of Orientalism is the degree to which the Middle East has been associated with "deviant" male homosexuality by scores of Western travelers, historians, writers, and artists for well over four hundred years. And this story stands to shatter our preconceptions of Orientalism. To illuminate why and how the Islamicate world became the locus for such fantasies and desires, Boone deploys a supple mode of analysis that reveals how the cultural exchanges between Middle East and West have always been reciprocal and often mutual, amatory as well as bellicose. Whether examining European accounts of Istanbul and Egypt as hotbeds of forbidden desire, juxtaposing Ottoman homoerotic genres and their European imitators, or unlocking the homoerotic encoding in Persian miniatures and Orientalist paintings, this remarkable study models an ethics of crosscultural reading that exposes, with nuance and economy, the crucial role played by the homoerotics of Orientalism in shaping the world as we know it today. A contribution to studies in visual culture as well as literary and social history, The Homoerotics of Orientalism draws on primary sources ranging from untranslated Middle Eastern manuscripts and European belles-lettres to miniature paintings and photographic erotica that are presented here for the first time.

Art in TheoryArt in Theory



... rendered the Orient 'as a picturesque, eroticised diversion for the delectation of the [male] European viewer' (Allan and Morton, Reconsidering Gérôme, ...

Author: Paul Wood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119591412

Category:

Page: 1168

View: 895

A ground-breaking new anthology in the Art in Theory series, offering an examination of the changing relationships between the West and the wider world in the field of art and material culture Art in Theory: The West in the World is a ground-breaking anthology that comprehensively examines the relationship of Western art to the art and material culture of the wider world. Editors Paul Wood and Leon Wainwright have included over 350 texts, some of which appear in English for the first time. The anthologized texts are presented in eight chronological parts, which are then subdivided into key themes appropriate to each historical era. The majority of the texts are representations of changing ideas about the cultures of the world by European artists and intellectuals, but increasingly, as the modern period develops, and especially as colonialism is challenged, a variety of dissenting voices begin to claim their space, and a counter narrative to western hegemony develops. Over half the book is devoted to 20th and 21st century materials, though the book’s unique selling point is the way it relates the modern globalization of art to much longer cultural histories. As well as the anthologized material, Art in Theory: The West in the World contains: A general introduction discussing the scope of the collection Introductory essays to each of the eight parts, outlining the main themes in their historical contexts Individual introductions to each text, explaining how they relate to the wider theoretical and political currents of their time Intended for a wide audience, the book is essential reading for students on courses in art and art history. It will also be useful to specialists in the field of art history and readers with a general interest in the culture and politics of the modern world.

Istanbul ExchangesIstanbul Exchanges



For recent revisionary accounts of his art see Scott Allan and Mary Morton, eds., Reconsidering Gérôme (Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2010).

Author: Mary Roberts

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520280533

Category:

Page: 259

View: 263

"A vibrant artistic milieu emerged in the late-nineteenth century Istanbul that was extremely heterogeneous, including Ottoman, Ottoman-Armenian, French, Italian, British, Polish and Ottoman-Greek artists. Roberts analyzes the ways artistic output intersected with the broader political agenda of a modernizing Ottoman state. She draws on extensive original research, bringing together sources in Turkey, England, France, Italy, Armenia, Poland and Denmark. Five chapters each address a particular issue related to transcultural exchange across the east-west divide that is focused on a particular case study of art, artistic patronage, and art exhibitions in nineteenth-century Istanbul"--Provided by publisher.

The Paragone in Nineteenth Century ArtThe Paragone in Nineteenth Century Art



183 Some preliminary sources to mention on Gérôme include La Vie et l'œuvre de ... works) appeared recently in the anthology Reconsidering Gérôme, eds.

Author: Sarah J. Lippert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429640599

Category:

Page: 238

View: 684

Offering an examination of the paragone, meaning artistic rivalry, in nineteenth-century France and England, this book considers how artists were impacted by prevailing aesthetic theories, or institutional and cultural paradigms, to compete in the art world. The paragone has been considered primarily in the context of Renaissance art history, but in this book readers will see how the legacy of this humanistic competitive model survived into the late nineteenth century.

Painting and Narrative in France from Poussin to Gauguin Painting and Narrative in France from Poussin to Gauguin



See Scott C. Allan, 'Gérôme face à la critique: l'accueil fait au peintre à ses ... 'Gérôme's Cinematic Imagination', in Reconsidering Gérôme, ed. by Scott ...

Author: Nina L?bbren

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351555340

Category:

Page: 250

View: 291

Before Modernism, narrative painting was one of the most acclaimed and challenging modes of picture-making in Western art, yet by the early twentieth century storytelling had all but disappeared from ambitious art. France was a key player in both the dramatic rise and the controversial demise of narrative art. This is the first book to analyse French painting in relation to narrative, from Poussin in the early seventeenth to Gauguin in the late nineteenth century. Thirteen original essays shed light on key moments and aspects of narrative and French painting through the study of artists such as Nicolas Poussin, Charles Le Brun, Jacques-Louis David, Paul Delaroche, Gustave Moreau, and Paul Gauguin. Using a range of theoretical perspectives, the authors study key issues such as temporality, theatricality, word-and-image relations, the narrative function of inanimate objects, the role played by viewers, and the ways in which visual narrative has been bound up with history painting. The book offers a fresh look at familiar material, as well as studying some little-known works of art, and reveals the centrality and complexity of narrative in French painting over the course of three centuries.

Orientalism Eroticism and Modern Visuality in Global Cultures Orientalism Eroticism and Modern Visuality in Global Cultures



Istanbul and Seatle: Pera Museum and University of Washington Press, 2011. 127–42. Print. ——— . “Gérôme in Istanbul.” Reconsidering Gérôme.

Author: Julie Codell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351555524

Category:

Page: 226

View: 247

In Orientalism, Eroticism and Modern Visuality in Global Cultures scholars look afresh at representations of nineteenth-century ?oriental? bodies, inquiring deeply into their erotic dimensions, tracing their global dissemination at cross-cultural intersections of the visual and the political. Authors consider the impact of eroticized orientalist representations registered on racial and gendered bodies at historical moments across the globe in the media of photography, painting, prints and sculpture by contextualizing the visual within social practices, ethnography, literature, travel writing and the dynamics of imperialism. Authors examine orientalism?s politico-erotic import across not only imperial Britain and France but also throughout India and the Middle East initiating cross-cultural analyses of orientalism outside of Europe. Works studied include Orientalist and homoerotic works by canonic artists such as Ingres, G?me, Delacroix and Girodet, and lesser-known artists such as sculptor Raffaele Monti and painter Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann. Contributors explore Turkish and European writings, explorer Richard Burton?s self-fashioning, and popular Orientalist photography in India and the Middle East. Authors draw on methods from gender studies, semiotics, material culture and psychoanalysis to explore art, national identity, homoerotic subcultures, female agency, class, sexuality and colonialism. The book is directed to interdisciplinary scholars and students in art history, literature, history, and postcolonial studies.

Architecture and the Late Ottoman Historical ImaginaryArchitecture and the Late Ottoman Historical Imaginary



On Gérôme's connections in the Ottoman capital, see Mary Roberts, “Gérôme in Istanbul,” in Reconsidering Gérôme, ed. Scott Allan and Mary Morton (Los ...

Author: AhmetA. Ersoy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351576017

Category:

Page: 334

View: 985

While European eclecticism is examined as a critical and experimental moment in western art history, little research has been conducted to provide an intellectual depth of field to the historicist pursuits of late Ottoman architects as they maneuvered through the nineteenth century?s vast inventory of available styles and embarked on a revivalist/Orientalist program they identified as the ?Ottoman Renaissance.? Ahmet A. Ersoy?s book examines the complex historicist discourse underlying this belated ?renaissance? through a close reading of a text conceived as the movement?s canonizing manifesto: the Usul-i Mi?mari-i ?Osmani [The Fundamentals of Ottoman Architecture] (Istanbul, 1873). In its translocal, cross-disciplinary scope, Ersoy?s work explores the creative ways in which the Ottoman authors straddled the art-historical mainstream and their new, self-orientalizing aesthetics of locality. The study reveals how Orientalism was embraced by its very objects, the self-styled ?Orientals? of the modern world, as a marker of authenticity, and a strategically located aesthetic tool to project universally recognizable images of cultural difference. Rejecting the lesser, subsidiary status ascribed to non-western Orientalisms, Ersoy?s work contributes to recent, post-Saidian directions in the study of cultural representation that resituate the field of Orientalism beyond its polaristic core, recognizing its cross-cultural potential as a polyvalent discourse.

Ben HurBen Hur



See Marc Gottleib, “Gérôme's Cinematic Imagination,” in Allan and Morton, Reconsidering Gérôme, 54–64; cf. Edwards, Noble Dreams, Wicked Pleasures.

Author: Jon Solomon

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 9781474407960

Category:

Page: 928

View: 908

Ben-Hur was the first literary blockbuster to generate multiple and hugely profitable adaptations, highlighted by the 1959 film that won a record-setting 11 Oscars. General Lew Wallace's book was spun off into dozens of popular publications and media productions, becoming a veritable commercial brand name that earned tens of millions of dollars. Ben-Hur: The Original Blockbuster surveys the Ben-Hur phenomenon's unprecedented range and extraordinary endurance: various editions, spin-off publications, stage productions, movies, comic books, radio plays, and retail products were successfully marketed and sold from the 1880s and throughout the twentieth century. Today Ben-Hur Live is touring Europe and Asia, with a third MGM film in production in Italy.Jon Solomon's new book offers an exciting and detailed study of the Ben-Hur brand, tracking its spectacular journey from Wallace's original novel through to twenty-first century adaptations, and encompassing a wealth of previously unexplored material along the way

On the Very EdgeOn the Very Edge



For an in-depth discussion of Gérôme's thematic and stylistic approach and this painting see Scott Allan and Mary Morton, Reconsidering Gérôme (Los Angeles, ...

Author: Jelena Bogdanović

Publisher: Leuven University Press

ISBN: 9789058679932

Category:

Page: 360

View: 609

Revealing a vibrant and intertwined artistic scene in the Balkans On the Very Edge brings together fourteen empirical and comparative essays about the production, perception, and reception of modernity and modernism in the visual arts, architecture, and literature of interwar Serbia (1918–1941). The contributions highlight some idiosyncratic features of modernist processes in this complex period in Serbian arts and society, which emerged ‘on the very edge’ between territorial and cultural, new and old, modern and traditional identities. With an open methodological framework this book reveals a vibrant and intertwined artistic scene, which, albeit prematurely, announced interests in pluralism and globalism. On the Very Edge addresses issues of artistic identities and cultural geographies and aims to enrich contextualized studies of modernism and its variants in the Balkans and Europe, while simultaneously re-mapping and adjusting the prevailing historical canon. Contributors Jelena Bogdanović (Iowa State University), Lilien Filipovitch Robinson (George Washington University), Igor Marjanović (Washington University in St. Louis), Miloš R. Perović (University of Belgrade), Jasna Jovanov (The Pavle Beljanski Memorial Collection and University EDUCONS, Novi Sad), Svetlana Tomić (Alfa University, Belgrade), Ljubomir Milanović (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts), Bojana Popović (Museum of Applied Art in Belgrade), Anna Novakov (Saint Mary’s College of California), Aleksandar Kadijević (University of Belgrade), Tadija Stefanović (University of Belgrade), Dragana Ćorović (University of Belgrade), Viktorija Kamilić (independent scholar), Marina Djurdjević (Museum of Science and Technology, Belgrade), Nebojša Stanković (Princeton University), Dejan Zec (Institute for Recent History of Serbia)

Space and Time in Artistic Practice and AestheticsSpace and Time in Artistic Practice and Aesthetics



Gülru Çak'mak, 'The Salon of 1859 and Caesar: The Limits of Painting', Reconsidering Gérôme, eds Scott Allan and Mary Morton (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty ...

Author: Sarah Lippert

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781786722560

Category:

Page: 304

View: 991

When the Enlightenment thinker Gotthold Ephraim Lessing wrote his treatise Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry in 1766, he outlined the strengths and weaknesses of each art. Painting was assigned to the realm of space; poetry to the realm of time. Space and Time in Artistic Practice and Aesthetics explores how artists since the eighteenth century up to the present day have grappled with the consequences of Lessing's theory and those that it spawned. As the book reveals, many artists have been - and continue to be – influenced by Lessing-like theories, which have percolated into the art education and art criticism. Artists from Jean Raoux to Willem de Kooning and Frances Bacon, and art critics such as Clement Greenberg, have felt the weight of Lessing's theories in their modes of creation, whether consciously or not. Should we sound the death knell for the theories of Lessing and his kind? Or will conceptions of temporality, spatiality and artistic competition continue to unfold? This book - the first to consider how Lessing's writings connect to visual art's production - brings these questions to the fore.

Hiding making showing creationHiding making showing creation



The Spectacular Art ofJean-Leon Gérôme (1824–1904) (Milan: Skira, 2000); Scott Allan and Mary Morton (eds.), Reconsidering Gérôme (Los Angeles: The J. Paul ...

Author: Ann-Sophie Lehmann

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789048518241

Category:

Page: 263

View: 826

The artist, at least according to Honoré de Balzac, is at work when he seems to be at rest; his labor is not labor but repose. This observation provides a model for modern artists and their relationship to both their place of work-the studio-and what they do there. Examining the complex relationship between process, product, artistic identity, and the artist's studio-in all its various manifestations-the contributors to this volume consider the dichotomy between conceptual and material aspects of art production. The various essays also explore the studio as a form of inspiration, meaning, function, and medium, from the nineteenth century up to the present.

Twelve CaesarsTwelve Caesars



'Gérôme and Ethnographic Realism at the Salon of 1857', in Allan and Morton (eds), Reconsidering Gérôme, 106–18 Miller, Stephen.

Author: Mary Beard

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691225869

Category:

Page: 384

View: 821

From the bestselling author of SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome, the fascinating story of how images of Roman autocrats have influenced art, culture, and the representation of power for more than 2,000 years What does the face of power look like? Who gets commemorated in art and why? And how do we react to statues of politicians we deplore? In this book—against a background of today’s “sculpture wars”—Mary Beard tells the story of how for more than two millennia portraits of the rich, powerful, and famous in the western world have been shaped by the image of Roman emperors, especially the “Twelve Caesars,” from the ruthless Julius Caesar to the fly-torturing Domitian. Twelve Caesars asks why these murderous autocrats have loomed so large in art from antiquity and the Renaissance to today, when hapless leaders are still caricatured as Neros fiddling while Rome burns. Beginning with the importance of imperial portraits in Roman politics, this richly illustrated book offers a tour through 2,000 years of art and cultural history, presenting a fresh look at works by artists from Memling and Mantegna to the nineteenth-century American sculptor Edmonia Lewis, as well as by generations of weavers, cabinetmakers, silversmiths, printers, and ceramicists. Rather than a story of a simple repetition of stable, blandly conservative images of imperial men and women, Twelve Caesars is an unexpected tale of changing identities, clueless or deliberate misidentifications, fakes, and often ambivalent representations of authority. From Beard’s reconstruction of Titian’s extraordinary lost Room of the Emperors to her reinterpretation of Henry VIII’s famous Caesarian tapestries, Twelve Caesars includes fascinating detective work and offers a gripping story of some of the most challenging and disturbing portraits of power ever created. Published in association with the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

The Novel of Neronian Rome and Its Multimedial TransformationsThe Novel of Neronian Rome and Its Multimedial Transformations



“ Blood Spectacle : Gérôme in the Arena ; S. C. Allan and M. G. Morton eds . , Reconsidering Gérôme , Los Angeles : Paul Getty Museum .

Author: Monika Wo'zniak

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198867531

Category:

Page: 352

View: 300

This volume explores the historical novel Quo vadis written by the Polish author Henryk Sienkiewicz, examining how Sienkiewicz recreated Neronian Rome so vividly and the reasons why his novel was so avidly consumed and reproduced in new editions, translations, visual illustrations, and adaptations to the stage and screen.

Mobility and Fantasy in Visual CultureMobility and Fantasy in Visual Culture



... Salon of 1859 and Caesar: The Limits of Painting,” in Reconsidering Gérôme, ed. ... andmy forthcoming book on JeanLéon Gérôme and the crisis of French ...

Author: Lewis Johnson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136747151

Category:

Page: 298

View: 716

This volume offers a varied and informed series of approaches to questions of mobility—actual, social, virtual, and imaginary—as related to visual culture. Contributors address these questions in light of important contemporary issues such as migration; globalization; trans-nationality and trans-cultural difference; art, space and place; new media; fantasy and identity; and the movement across and the transgression of the proprieties of boundaries and borders. The book invites the reader to read across the collection, noting differences or making connections between media and forms and between audiences, critical traditions and practitioners, with a view to developing a more informed understanding of visual culture and its modalities of mobility and fantasy as encouraged by dominant, emergent, and radical forms of visual practice.

A Companion to Modern ArtA Companion to Modern Art



“Gérôme and Ethnographic Realism at the Salon of 1857.” In Reconsidering Gérôme, edited by Scott Allan and Mary Morton, 106–118.

Author: Pam Meecham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118639801

Category:

Page: 568

View: 637

A Companion to Modern Art presents a series of original essays by international and interdisciplinary authors who offer a comprehensive overview of the origins and evolution of artistic works, movements, approaches, influences, and legacies of Modern Art. Presents a contemporary debate and dialogue rather than a seamless consensus on Modern Art Aims for reader accessibility by highlighting a plurality of approaches and voices in the field Presents Modern Art’s foundational philosophic ideas and practices, as well as the complexities of key artists such as Cezanne and Picasso, and those who straddled the modern and contemporary Looks at the historical reception of Modern Art, in addition to the latest insights of art historians, curators, and critics to artists, educators, and more

A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on ScreenA Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen



Gérôme's cinematic imagination. In S. Allan and M. Morton (eds.), Reconsidering Gérôme. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, pp. 54–64. Harrison, S. (2007).

Author: Arthur J. Pomeroy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118741443

Category:

Page: 568

View: 112

A comprehensive treatment of the Classical World in film and television, A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen closely examines the films and TV shows centered on Greek and Roman cultures and explores the tension between pagan and Christian worlds. Written by a team of experts in their fields, this work considers productions that discuss social settings as reflections of their times and as indicative of the technical advances in production and the economics of film and television. Productions included are a mix of Hollywood and European spanning from the silent film era though modern day television series, and topics discussed include Hollywood politics in film, soundtrack and sound design, high art and low art, European art cinemas, and the ancient world as comedy. Written for students of film and television as well as those interested in studies of ancient Rome and Greece, A Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome on Screen provides comprehensive, current thinking on how the depiction of Ancient Greece and Rome on screen has developed over the past century. It reviews how films of the ancient world mirrored shifting attitudes towards Christianity, the impact of changing techniques in film production, and fascinating explorations of science fiction and technical fantasy in the ancient world on popular TV shows like Star Trek, Babylon 5, Battlestar Galactica, and Dr. Who.

French Women Orientalist Artists 1861 1956French Women Orientalist Artists 1861 1956



59 For an alternative reading of Gérôme's paintings see Scott Allan and Mary G. Morton (eds.), Reconsidering Gérôme (Los Angeles: Getty Museum, ...

Author: Mary Kelly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000405347

Category:

Page: 248

View: 122

This book is the first full-length study dedicated to French women Orientalist artists. Mary Kelly has gathered primary documentation relating to seventy-two women artists whose works of art can be placed in the canon of French Orientalism between 1861 and 1956. Bringing these artists together for the first time and presenting close contextual analyses of works of art, attention is given to artists’ cross-cultural interactions with painted/sculpted representations of the Maghreb particularly in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. Using an interdisciplinary ‘open platform of discussion’ approach, Kelly builds on established theory which places emphases on the gendered gaze. This entails a discussion on women’s painted perspectives of and contacts with Muslim women as well as various Maghrebi cultures and land—all the while remaining mindful of the subject position of the French artist and the problematic issues which can arise when discussing European-made ‘ethnographic’ scenes. Kelly argues that French women’s perspectives of the Maghreb differed from the male gaze and were informed by their artistic training and social positions in Europe. In so doing, French women’s socio-cultural modernity is also examined. Moreover, executed between 1861 and 1956, the works of art presented show influences of Modernism; therefore, this book also pays close attention to progressive Realism and Naturalism in art and the Orientalist shift into Modernist subject matter and form. Through this research into French women Orientalists, Kelly engages with important discussions on the crossing view of the historical female other with the cultural other, artistic hybridity and influence in art as well as the postcolonial response to French activities in colonial Algeria and the protectorates of Tunisia and Morocco. On giving focus to women’s art and the impact of cross-cultural interchanges, this book rethinks Orientalism in French art. This book will be of particular interest to scholars in the History of Art, Gender Studies, History, and Middle Eastern and North African Studies.