Determination of Electric Potential Across the Oxide Scale During Oxidation of Tantalum Niobium and MagnesiumDetermination of Electric Potential Across the Oxide Scale During Oxidation of Tantalum Niobium and Magnesium

Surplice , N. A .; and Jones , R. P .: The Thermoelectric Power of Oxide Cathodes on Platinum Cores . Brit . J. Appl . Phys . , vol . 14 , no . 7 , July 1963 , pp . 444-448 . 16. Buyers , A. G .: Hypothesis on a High - Temperature ...

Author: Isidor Zaplatynsky


ISBN: UIUC:30112106688291


Page: 8

View: 876

Technical Abstract BulletinTechnical Abstract Bulletin

8 , 7 ( 31 July 61 ) OTS price $ 3.60 General Electric Co. , Schenectady , N. Y. CROSSED - FIELD THERMIONIC CONVERSION ... Magnesium compounds , Oxides , Spinel , Processing , Diodes , Oxide cathodes , Chlorines , Contamination .

Author: Defense Documentation Center (U.S.)


ISBN: UTEXAS:059172131213043


Page: 1538

View: 878

Modern Developments in Vacuum Electron SourcesModern Developments in Vacuum Electron Sources

R.T. Doloff, Electrical conductivity of barium oxide single crystals as a function of temperature and excess barium density, J. Appl. Phys. ... D.A. Wright, J. Woods (GEC), The emission from oxide-coated cathodes in an electric field.

Author: Georg Gaertner

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030472917


Page: 597

View: 971

This book gives an overview of modern cathodes and electron emitters for vacuum tubes and vacuum electron devices in general. It covers the latest developments in field emission theory as well as new methods towards improving thermionic and cold cathodes. It addresses thermionic cathodes, such as oxide cathodes, impregnated and scandate cathodes, as well as photocathodes and field emitters – the latter comprising carbon nanotubes, graphene and Spindt-type emitter arrays. Despite the rise and fall of the once dominant types of vacuum tubes, such as radio valves and cathode ray tubes, cathodes are continually being improved upon as new applications with increased demands arise, for example in electron beam lithography, high-power and high-frequency microwave tubes, terahertz imaging and electron sources for accelerators. Written by 17 experts in the field, the book presents the latest developments in cathodes needed for these applications, discussing the state of the art and addressing future trends.

New Perspectives on Electric VehiclesNew Perspectives on Electric Vehicles

Layered structure cathodes such as LiCoO2 and NMC reported that can work as proton scavenger through Li ion and proton exchanging in blend cathodes [44]. In LFMP and spinel oxide cathodes, dissolved manganese may be precipitation on ...

Author: Marian Găiceanu

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9781839696145


Page: 226

View: 789

Modern transportation systems have adverse effects on the climate, emitting greenhouse gases and polluting the air. As such, new modes of non-polluting transportation, including electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, are a major focus of current research and development. This book explores the future of transportation. It is divided into four sections: “Electric Vehicles Infrastructures,” “Architectures of the Electric Vehicles,” “Technologies of the Electric Vehicles,” and “Propulsion Systems.” The chapter authors share their research experience regarding the main barriers in electric vehicle implementation, their thoughts on electric vehicle modelling and control, and network communication challenges.

Performance of Various Oxide magazine Cathodes in Kaufman ThrustersPerformance of Various Oxide magazine Cathodes in Kaufman Thrusters

Keller , Thomas A .: NASA Electric Rocket Test Facilities . Paper presented at Symposium on Rocket Operations at Simulated High Altitudes and in Space , Arnold Engineering Development Center , Tullahoma , Tenn . , June 28-29 , 1961 .

Author: David C. Byers


ISBN: UIUC:30112106778050


Page: 27

View: 201

Electric Propulsion DevelopmentElectric Propulsion Development

It was also desirable, from a power efficiency standpoint, to use low work function, low temperature cathodes. Oxide coated cathodes were known to operate satisfactorily in commercial gaseous discharge tubes under the conditions ...

Author: Ernst Stuhlinger

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323163385


Page: 762

View: 445

Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Volume 9: Electric Propulsion Development covers the proceedings of the Second Electric Propulsion Conference of the American Rocker Society, held in Berkeley, California on March 14-16, 1962. The conference focuses on the existing problems in electric propulsion and their possible solutions. This book is organized into four sections encompassing 35 chapters. The first section deals with the thermodynamics of arcs; the problems of heat and momentum transfer; the chemical processes within arcs; the arc system materials; and the arc jet design problems. The second section considers the problems of ion systems, the various ion sources, and the neutralization of ion beams. This section also looks into the basic ionization processes, the production and charging of heavy particles, the corrosive properties of cesium, and the ion-optical designs. The third section describes various plasma systems, including helical transmission lines, pulsed pinch accelerators, coaxial systems, and j x B accelerators. The theoretical analyses of these systems are briefly examined. The fourth section includes papers on flight testing of electric propulsion models, on vertical rocket probes, and on satellites, This section also discusses some advanced concepts in electric propulsion, such as air scooping during ascent through the atmosphere, systems design and optimization, and planetary and interplanetary missions. This book is of great value to physicists, space engineers and designers, as well as researchers in the fields of astronautics and aeronautics.

Understanding the Capacity Fade Mechanisms of Spinel Manganese Oxide Cathodes and Improving Their Performance in Lithium Ion BatteriesUnderstanding the Capacity Fade Mechanisms of Spinel Manganese Oxide Cathodes and Improving Their Performance in Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium ion batteries have been successful in portable electronics market due to their high energy density, adopting the layered LiCoO2 as the cathode material in commercial lithium ion cells.

Author: Won Chang Choi


ISBN: OCLC:180877718


Page: 294

View: 367

Lithium ion batteries have been successful in portable electronics market due to their high energy density, adopting the layered LiCoO2 as the cathode material in commercial lithium ion cells. However, increasing interest in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle applications requires alternative cathode materials due to the high cost, toxicity, and limited power capability of the layered LiCoO2 cathode. In this regard, spinel LiMn2O4 has become appealing as manganese is inexpensive and environmentally benign, but LiMn2O4 is plagued by severe capacity fade at elevated temperatures. This dissertation explores the factors that control and limit the electrochemical performance of spinel LiMn2O4 cathodes and focuses on improving the performance parameters such as the capacity, cyclability, and rate capability of various spinel cathodes derived from LiMn2O4. From a systematic investigation of a number of cationic and anionic (fluorine) substituted spinel oxide compositions, the improvements in electrochemical properties and performances are found to be due to the reduced manganese dissolution and suppressed lattice parameter difference between the two cubic phases formed during the charge-discharge process. Investigations focused on fluorine substitution reveal that spinel LiMn[subscript 2-yz]LiyZnzO[subscript 4-eta]F[subscript eta] oxyfluoride cathodes synthesized by solid-state reactions at 800 °C employing ZnF2 as a raw material and spinel LiMn[subscript 2-y-z]Li[subscript y]Ni[subscript z]O[subscript 4-eta]F[subscript eta] oxyfluoride cathodes synthesized by firing the cation-substituted LiMn[subscript 2-y-z]LiyNi[subscript z]O4 oxides with NH4HF2 at a moderate temperature of 450 °C show superior cyclability, increased capacity, reduced Mn dissolution, and excellent storage performance compared to the corresponding oxide analogs and the conventional LiMn2O4. Spinel-layered composite cathodes are found to exhibit better electrochemical performance with graphite anode when charged to 4.7 V in the first cycle followed by cycling at 4.3-3.5 V compared to the normal cycling at 4.3 - 3.5 V. The improved performance is explained to be due to the trapping of trace amounts of protons that may be present in the electrolyte within the layered oxide lattice during the first charge to 4.7 V and the consequent reduction in Mn dissolution. Electrochemical performances of 3 V spinel Li4Mn5O12 cathodes are also improved by fluorine substitution due to the suppression of the disproportionation of Li4Mn5O12 during synthesis and the formation of the Li2MnO3 phase.