On the Content of Empty CategoriesOn the Content of Empty Categories

DETERMINING THE PROPERTIES OF THE EMPTY CATEGORY . ... 2.2 What is an empty category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 The content of an empty category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 F-features and Domain D . .

Author: Denis Bouchard

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110850000


Page: 223

View: 730

The architecture of the human language faculty has been one of the main foci of the linguistic research of the last half century. This branch of linguistics, broadly known as Generative Grammar, is concerned with the formulation of explanatory formal accounts of linguistic phenomena with the ulterior goal of gaining insight into the properties of the 'language organ'. The series comprises high quality monographs and collected volumes that address such issues. The topics in this series range from phonology to semantics, from syntax to information structure, from mathematical linguistics to studies of the lexicon.

Empty Categories in Sentence ProcessingEmpty Categories in Sentence Processing

Bouchard ( 1984 : " On the Content of Empty Categories ” ) specifies the grammatical features person , number and gender , and adds a referential index which determines the EC's reference . Lasnik & Uriagereka ( 1988 ) suggest that ...

Author: Sam Featherston

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027227640


Page: 277

View: 749

Annotation Featherston (Eberhard-Karls-U., Tubingen) presents the results of three experiments on the role of empty categories--phonetically null place-holders for locally absent constituents--in sentence processing. The experiments used probe recognition, sentence matching, and event-related potentials, as well as self-paced reading. Coverage includes a discussion of the predictions of both Principles and Parameters Theory and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

Excursions in Chinese CultureExcursions in Chinese Culture

1240–44 ) Shih - jen yü - hsieh , where these two classes of words appear under both the empty and content word categories.'Correlation of the shih- and hsü - tzu formulation with grammar is therefore impossible .

Author: Marie Chan

Publisher: Chinese University Press

ISBN: 9622019153


Page: 232

View: 672

This volume of essays honors William R. Schultz, a leading figure in Chinese studies and a revered teacher. For many years Professor of East Asian Studies at the University of Arizona, Schultz is an authority on Lu Hsun and modern Chinese literature, an editor of thirty-four scholarly books on Chinese literature, including Waiting for the Unicorn: Poems and Lyrics of China's Last Dynasty, 1644-1911 (with Irving Yucheng Lo, 1986), which is the first comprehensive survey of Ch'ing dynasty poetry in English. Covering diverse aspects of Chinese literature, history and culture, the ten articles in this volume are by William Schultz's students, colleagues and friends who salute him as a model of the scholarly and academic ideal.

Towards an Elegant SyntaxTowards an Elegant Syntax

appears to have no bearing on the problem of whether trace and PRO differ in feature composition. ... The contrast between characterizing empty categories in terms of their feature content and classifying them by contextual conditions ...

Author: Michael Brody

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134423545


Page: 320

View: 995

This collection of essays, written between 1980 and 2001, places the search for theoretical elegance at centre stage. The author shows that although the conceptual difference between 'elegance' and the minimalist search for 'perfection' may appear to be subtle, its consequences are in fact wide ranging and radical. These considerations lead to a markedly different and novel theory of syntax where most of the major features of minimalism, such as derivation, economy, merge, move, phrases and projection, are not just reanalysed or shifted to other components but in a majority of cases are dispensed with completely or reduced to much simpler notions. Towards an Elegant Syntax makes available important and some less easily accessible publications with new introductory material.

Universal Grammar and American Sign LanguageUniversal Grammar and American Sign Language

Restrictions on Empty Categories According to GB theory , empty categories are freely generated , then subjected to ... The assumption is also usually made that the content of an empty category must be ' recoverable ' in some sense .

Author: D.C. Lillo-Martin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0792314190


Page: 244

View: 976

AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE American Sign Language (ASL) is the visual-gestural language used by most of the deaf community in the United States and parts of Canada. On the surface, this language (as all signed languages) seems radically different from the spoken languages which have been used to formulate theories of linguistic princi ples and parameters. However, the position taken in this book is that when the surface effects of modality are stripped away, ASL will be seen to follow many of the patterns proposed as universals for human language. If these theoretical constructs are meant to hold for language in general, then they should hold for natural human language in any modality; and ifASL is such a natural human language, then it too must be accounted for by any adequate theory of Universal Grammar. For this rea son, the study of ASL can be vital for proposed theories of Universal Grammar. Recent work in several theoretical frameworks of syntax as well as phonology have argued that indeed, ASL is such a lan guage. I will assume then, that principles of Universal Gram mar, and principles that derive from it, are applicable to ASL, and in fact that ASL can serve as one of the languages which test Universal Grammar. There is an important distinction to be drawn, however, be tween what is called here 'American Sign Language', and other forms of manual communication.

The Nature and Origin of LanguageThe Nature and Origin of Language

On the Content of Empty Categories. Ph.D. thesis, MIT. Bouchard, Denis. 1984. On the Content of Empty Categories (Studies in Generative Grammar 14). Dordrecht & Cinnaminson, NJ: Foris. Bouchard, Denis. 1985. On the Binding Theory and ...

Author: Denis Bouchard

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191503856


Page: 404

View: 233

This book looks at how the human brain got the capacity for language and how language then evolved. Its four parts are concerned with different views on the emergence of language, with what language is, how it evolved in the human brain, and finally how this process led to the properties of language. Part I considers the main approaches to the subject and how far language evolved culturally or genetically. Part II argues that language is a system of signs and considers how these elements first came together in the brain. Part III examines the evidence for brain mechanisms to allow the formation of signs. Part IV shows how the book's explanation of language origins and evolution is not only consistent with the complex properties of languages but provides the basis for a theory of syntax that offers insights into the learnability of language and to the nature of constructions that have defied decades of linguistic analysis, including including subject-verb inversion in questions, existential constructions, and long-distance dependencies. Denis Bouchard's outstandingly original account will interest linguists of all persuasions as well as cognitive scientists and others interested in the evolution of language.

Transnational IdentitiesTransnational Identities

She notes that Europe remains to a large degree an “empty set” for identity purposes, meaning there is little agreed—on understanding of the content of the category in the sense of encompassing the characteristics of the individual ...

Author: Richard K. Herrmann

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 9781461646365


Page: 320

View: 842

This original work explores the increasingly important phenomenon of the formation of transnational identity. Considering the ongoing relevance of the European Union, the contributors ask a series of intriguing questions: Is a European identity possible? How are the various types of European identity formed and maintained? How are these identities linked to the process of European integration? Combining a rich array of theoretical and methodological perspectives, distinguished scholars examine both the theoretical understanding of why and how transnational identities form and new empirical evidence drawn from an impressive body of primary research, including field experiments, in-depth interviews with elites, and public opinion surveys. The authors engage in a fruitful dialogue about how much a European identity exists and how much it matters as they delve into the sources of disagreement and their implications.


Further, I argue that ellipted categories are licensed and identified under the conditions in (5). ... Ellipses are non-referential empty categories, whose content is typically argued in government-binding theory to be recovered through ...

Author: Anne Lobeck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195357930


Page: 224

View: 375

This book elaborates a theory of ellipsis that sheds new light on a well-known phenomenon, bringing it under the aegis of general and universal principles. Lobeck argues that ellipted categories in IP (VP Ellipsis), DP (N' Ellipsis), and CP (Sluicing) are empty, non-referential pronominals, subject to the same licensing and identification conditions as referential pro. She proposes that both types of empty pronominals must be licensed under head-government to satisfy the Empty Category Principle, and identified through strong agreement. In the case of ellipsis, agreement-type features make the empty category visible to interpretive processes of reconstruction. These licensing and identification conditions derive the result that ellipses are complements of functional categories DET, COMP, and INFL, but not of lexical categories. The analysis is supported by contrastive evidence from ellipsis in French and German, in which licensing and identification interact with Verb Raising, feature checking, and a parameter defining "strong" agreement.

Agreement in Natural LanguageAgreement in Natural Language

... the subject in a sentence such as ( la ) is an empty category called pro , which has the features [ + pronominal ... the distribution of empty categories which states that the content of an empty category must be " identified .

Author: Center for the Study of Language and Information (U.S.)

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language (CSLI)

ISBN: 0937073024


Page: 355

View: 160

Although grammatical agreement or concord is widespread in human languages, linguistic theorists have generally treated agreement phenomena as secondary or even marginal. All the papers in this volume, however, take agreement phenomena seriously, as presenting either a general issue in theory construction or a descriptive problem in particular types of languages. The theoretical perspectives range from purportedly theory-neutral typological frameworks to assumptions about the validity of one or another current formal model. Further, the degree of generality ranges from a universalist nature-of-human-language agenda to concern with one or another aspect of grammatical agreement or with agreement in a single language or language group.