On Syntax of NegationOn Syntax of Negation



The central concern of this title, first published in 1994, is the syntactic nature of negation in Universal Grammar, and its relation to other functional elements in the Syntax.

Author: Itziar Laka

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781315458632

Category:

Page: 196

View: 645

The central concern of this title, first published in 1994, is the syntactic nature of negation in Universal Grammar, and its relation to other functional elements in the Syntax. The study argues that negation is not a syntactic category on its own; rather, it is one of the values of a more abstract syntactic category, named Σ, which includes other sentence operators, such as affirmation and emphasis. This title will be of interest to students of language and linguistics.

The Syntax of NegationThe Syntax of Negation



Demonstrates sentential negation within a Government and Binding framework, showing parallelism between negative and interrogative sentences.

Author: Liliane Haegeman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521464927

Category:

Page: 335

View: 200

Demonstrates sentential negation within a Government and Binding framework, showing parallelism between negative and interrogative sentences.

Studies on NegationStudies on Negation



The aim of this volume is to complement the vast body of research literature by offering a set of cutting-edge studies on negation.

Author: Silvio Cruschina

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783847005605

Category:

Page: 216

View: 220

Negation is a universal feature of human language that is inherently logical in nature, presents typologically diverse manifestations, and plays a fundamental role in the mapping between syntactic structure and semantic interpretation. The aim of this volume is to complement the vast body of research literature by offering a set of cutting-edge studies on negation. All the contributions are related to recent questions bearing on the syntax and semantics of negative elements and the variation in their form, and follow the central assumption that a proper understanding of the multifaceted expression of negation is central to our understanding of the grammar as a whole. With this in mind, different approaches and a variety of empirical and analytic details have been included in this volume.

History of German NegationHistory of German Negation



This book represents the first comprehensive overview over the history of negation in German.

Author: Agnes Jäger

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027255016

Category:

Page: 350

View: 932

This book represents the first comprehensive overview over the history of negation in German. It addresses both the development of the negation particles as well as the diachrony of indefinites in the scope of negation and the phenomenon of Negative Concord. Being based on a corpus study of several Old and Middle High German texts, it comprises a wealth of historical examples with additional comparison to Modern Standard German and dialects, as well as crosslinguistic data from a variety of languages. The findings are placed in the context of typological research and are analysed in terms of current syntactic and semantic theory of negation arguing for an unchanged underlying syntactic structure, with changes in the lexical filling of NegP and in the lexical features of indefinites resulting in crucial changes in the syntactic patterns of negation. This book is of interest to scholars of German linguistics, historical linguists, as well as anyone working in the field of negation.

Negation and Clausal StructureNegation and Clausal Structure



Zanuttini's goal here is to characterize the range of such variation by comparing the different syntactic means for expressing sentential negation exhibited by the members of one language family--the Romance languages--and by reducing the ...

Author: Raffaella Zanuttini

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019535978X

Category:

Page:

View: 385

Every human language has some syntactic means of distinguishing a negative from a non-negative sentence; in other words, every speaker's syntactic competence provides a means to express sentential negation. This ability, however, may be expressed in different ways, as shown by the fact that individual languages employ different syntactic strategies for the expression of the same semantic function of negating a sentence. Zanuttini's goal here is to characterize the range of such variation by comparing the different syntactic means for expressing sentential negation exhibited by the members of one language family--the Romance languages--and by reducing the differences we witness to a constrained set of choices available to the particular grammars of these languages. This sort of analysis is a first step towards the ultimate goal of determining and understanding what limits there are on the syntactic options that universal grammar imposes on the expression of sentential negation.

The Syntax of Negation and the Licensing of Negative Polarity Items in HindiThe Syntax of Negation and the Licensing of Negative Polarity Items in Hindi



A strong feature does not need to be checked in syntax, whereas a weak feature
needs to be checked by movement at LF. Therefore, in a language with a strong
feature in NegP1, a negative clause must have a negative marker in NegP1, or a
 ...

Author: Rajesh Kumar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135504687

Category:

Page: 200

View: 422

This books studies syntax of NPIs and their interaction with sentential negatives in Hindi. It outlines the clause structure of Hindi and locates the syntactic position of sentential negatives as well as constituent negatives within the structure. It is argued that sentential negative in Hindi negation marker heads its own maximal projection, NegP, which is immediately dominated by TP. In addition to locating the position of negation markers in the clause structure, it outlines the distribution of negative polarity items (NPIs) in Hindi and the structural constraints on their licensing by sentential negative. The book argues that an NPI in Hindi is licensed overtly in the course of derivation by a c-commanding negative marker. The bulk of the evidence presented in this book argues against previous theoretical accounts that claim that NPI licensing involves covert syntactic operations such as LF movement or reconstruction. With respect to the classification of NPIs , this book also shows the existence of two different types of NPIs in Hindi; namely, strong NPIs and weak NPIs. Strong NPIs require a clause mate c-commanding negative licensor, whereas weak NPIs are quantifiers and are similar to free choice 'any' in English that are interpreted as NPIs in the presence of a c-commanding negative licensor.

Classical NEG RaisingClassical NEG Raising



In this book, Chris Collins and Paul Postal consider examples such the one below on the interpretation where Nancy thinks that this course is not interesting: Nancy doesn't think this course is interesting.

Author: Chris Collins

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262027311

Category:

Page: 296

View: 632

An extended argument for a syntactic view of NEG raising with consequences for the syntax of negation and negative polarity items.

The Syntax of Negation in RussianThe Syntax of Negation in Russian



This book offers a Minimalist analysis of certain syntactic phenomena in Russian associated with negation.

Author: Sue Brown

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language and Information Publications

ISBN: 1575861682

Category:

Page: 166

View: 426

This book offers a Minimalist analysis of certain syntactic phenomena in Russian associated with negation. These phenomena include the distribution of morphologically negative words and the pattern of Negative Concord they exhibit (whereby multiple occurrences of negative words are interpreted as only one instance of negation); the Genitive of Negation (the case marking on the internal argument of negated verbs); expletive negation (formal negation without negative content), and negated Yes/No questions (including a previously undiscussed pattern of expletive negation effects observed in certain types of Yes/No questions). The end result is a formalization of the status of negation within the phrase structure of Russian that not only contributes relevant Slavic data to the pool of negation data, but also sheds new light on the syntactic expression of negation universally.

Aspects of English NegationAspects of English Negation



This book contains eleven carefully selected papers, all discussing negative constructions in English.

Author: Yoko Iyeiri

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027232311

Category:

Page: 239

View: 502

This book contains eleven carefully selected papers, all discussing negative constructions in English. The aim of this volume is to bring together empirical research into the development of English negation and analyses of syntactic variations in Present-day English negation. The first part "Aspects of Negation in the History of English" includes six contributions, that focus on the usages of the negative adverbs ne and not, the decline of negative concord, and the development of the auxiliary do in negation. Most of the themes discussed here are then linked to the second part "Aspects of Negation in Present-day English". Especially, the issue of negative concord is repeatedly explored by three of the five papers in this part, one related to British English dialects in general, another to Tyneside English, and the other to African American Vernacular English. This book uniquely highlights the importance of continuity from Old English to Present-day English, while, in its introduction, it provides a useful detailed survey of previous studies on English negation.

Expression and Interpretation of NegationExpression and Interpretation of Negation



This is true not just for the expression of negatives, but for their interpretation too.

Author: Henriëtte de Swart

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048131631

Category:

Page: 279

View: 887

This study in cross-linguistic semantics deploys the framework of bi-directional Optimality Theory to develop a typology of the relationship between syntax and semantics in negation markers and negation indefinites.

The Morphosyntax of Negative MarkersThe Morphosyntax of Negative Markers



This book applies the tools of nanosyntax to the natural language phenomenon of negation.

Author: Karen De Clercq

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9781501513770

Category:

Page: 262

View: 956

This book applies the tools of nanosyntax to the natural language phenomenon of negation. Most work on negation is concerned with the study of sentence negation, while low scope negation or constituent negation is hardly ever systematically discussed in the literature. The present book aims to fill that gap, by investigating scopally different negative markers in a sample of 23 typologically diverse languages. A four-way classification of negative markers is argued for and it is shown how meaningful syncretism patterns arise across those four groups of negative markers in the language sample investigated. The syncretisms are meaningful in that they track the natural semantic scope of negation, and provide support to the idea that morphology is not arbitrary, but points to submorphemic structure. Consequently, this study leads to a decomposition of the negative morpheme into five privative features: Tense, Focus, Classification, Quantity and Negation proper. Finally, the book argues that sentence, constituent and lexical negation can all be treated in the same module of the grammar, i.e. syntax.

The Oxford Handbook of NegationThe Oxford Handbook of Negation



In this volume, international experts in negation provide a comprehensive overview of cross-linguistic and philosophical research in the field, as well as accounts of more recent results from experimental linguistics, psycholinguistics, and ...

Author: Viviane Déprez

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198830528

Category:

Page: 832

View: 436

In this volume, international experts in negation provide a comprehensive overview of cross-linguistic and philosophical research in the field, as well as accounts of more recent results from experimental linguistics, psycholinguistics, and neuroscience. The volume adopts an interdisciplinary approach to a range of fundamental questions ranging from why negation displays so many distinct linguistic forms to how prosody and gesture participate in the interpretation of negative utterances. Following an introduction from the editors, the chapters are arranged in eight parts that explore, respectively, the fundamentals of negation; issues in syntax; the syntax-semantics interface; semantics and pragmatics; negative dependencies; synchronic and diachronic variation; the emergence and acquisition of negation; and experimental investigations of negation. The volume will be an essential reference for students and researchers across a wide range of disciplines, and will facilitate further interdisciplinary work in the field.

Crosslinguistic Research in Syntax and SemanticsCrosslinguistic Research in Syntax and Semantics



Presenting cutting-edge research in syntax and semantics, this important volume furthers theoretical claims in generative linguistics and represents a significant addition to present scholarship in the field.

Author: Raffaella Zanuttini

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589013050

Category:

Page: 254

View: 688

Presenting cutting-edge research in syntax and semantics, this important volume furthers theoretical claims in generative linguistics and represents a significant addition to present scholarship in the field. Leading scholars present crosslinguistic studies dealing with clausal architecture, negation, and tense and aspect, and the issue of whether a statistical model can by itself capture the richness of human linguistic abilities. Taken together, these contributions elegantly show how theoretical tools can propel our understanding of language beyond pretheoretical descriptions, especially when combined with the insight and skills of linguists who can analyze difficult and complex data. Crosslinguistic Research in Syntax and Semantics covers a range of topics currently at the center of lively debate in the linguistic literature, such as the structure of the left periphery of the clause, the proper treatment of negative polarity items, and the role of statistical learning in building a model of linguistic competence. The ten original contributions offer an excellent balance of novel empirical description and theoretical analysis, applied to a wide range of languages, including Dutch, German, Irish English, Italian, Malagasy, Malay, and a number of medieval Romance languages. Scholars and students of semantics, syntax, and linguistic theory will find it to be a valuable resource for ongoing scholarship and advanced study.

Negation in Syntax on the Nature of Functional Categories and ProjectionsNegation in Syntax on the Nature of Functional Categories and Projections



NEGATION IN SYNTAX : ABSTRACT . ON THE NATURE OF FUNCTIONAL
CATEGORIES AND PROJECTIONS by The central concern of this work is the
syntactic nature of negation in Universal Grammar , and its relation to other
functional ...

Author: Miren Itziar Laka Mugarza

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105008896297

Category:

Page: 265

View: 901

The Syntax of SurpriseThe Syntax of Surprise



Crucially, some languages employ negative sentences to assert affirmative and surprise propositions. A clear example of this is offered by Italian, as in: ‘E non (not) mi è scesa dal treno Maria?!’ (‘Maria got off the train!’).

Author: Matteo Greco

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781527543782

Category:

Page: 240

View: 847

Negation is a universal syntactic phenomenon only employed in human languages. People use negative sentences in everyday conversations, and they display complex semantic and syntactic properties when doing so. Crucially, some languages employ negative sentences to assert affirmative and surprise propositions. A clear example of this is offered by Italian, as in: ‘E non (not) mi è scesa dal treno Maria?!’ (‘Maria got off the train!’). This special type of negation is called surprise negation, and it belongs to the class of expletive negation. This book sheds light on this puzzling phenomenon, by means of a theoretical analysis and an experimental study. It explores the contexts, mainly syntactic, in which negation receives its expletive interpretation, and considers whether expletive negation is grammatically distinct from standard negation.

On the Acquisition of Negation What Role Does Universal Grammar Play in First and Second Language Acquisition On the Acquisition of Negation What Role Does Universal Grammar Play in First and Second Language Acquisition



Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,3, University of Cologne, 14 Literaturquellen entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The ability to learn and produce natural ...

Author: Lars Berghaus

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783638794831

Category:

Page: 44

View: 653

Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject American Studies - Linguistics, grade: 2,3, University of Cologne, 14 Literaturquellen entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The ability to learn and produce natural language and move beyond the communication of sign and body language is unique to human beings. The acquisition of language is possible since grammar is assumed to be universal. Universal Grammar (UG) defines properties of language itself. CHOMSKY'S theory of grammar is constrained, first, by universal grammatical principles which determine the broad outline of grammar and are generally true and, second, by grammatical parameters which are language-specific dimensions of a particular language and allow crosslinguistic variation. The first doesn't have to be learned since it is part of the innate language faculty; the latter needs to be acquired and is assumed to be linked to individual items in the lexicon (CAPDEVILA I BATET ET AL. 1995, 31). The central task of acquisition is thus the construction of the grammar of the target language, in other words, the setting of parameters, which is also referred to as grammatical learning (versus lexical learning). One of the parameters that needs to be set is the construction of negation. In this paper, I look at the nature and operation of negation (part I) and how children and adults acquire it during their first and second language acquisition process of different languages (parts II and III). Moreover, underlying principles and mechanisms of L1 and L2 acquisition will be discussed and compared. I want to investigate the way in which the principles and parameters of UG (do not) operate over time as the individual's grammar gradually develops and find out if the children's and adults' grammars conform to these. An individual acquiring L1 has to access the innate grammatical principals of UG in the initial state and learn the language-specific grammatical parameters. L1 acquisition is rapid, un

The Expression of NegationThe Expression of Negation



Precisely this is the aim of the present series. The short volumes will bring together what is known about the expression of a particular category in human language.

Author: Laurence R. Horn

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110219296

Category:

Page: 343

View: 281

Human thought and action is fundamentally shaped by a small set of cognitive categories, such as time, space, causality, or possession. It is not surprising, therefore, that all natural languages have developed many devices to express these categories. Temporality, for example, is reflected in the lexical meaning of verbs, in grammatical marking of tense and aspect, in time adverbials, in special particles, and in the application of discourse principles. Many of these devices have been the subject of intensive research across languages; but as a rule, this research focuses on particular aspects, it does not look at the expression of such a category as a whole. Precisely this is the aim of the present series. The short volumes will bring together what is known about the expression of a particular category in human language. The series THE EXPRESSION OF COGNITIVE CATEGORIES is edited by WOLFGANG KLEIN and STEPHEN LEVINSON, Max-Planck-Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen (The Netherlands). Negation is a core feature of human language, a precondition for contradiction, denial, irony, and lies. This book surveys the form and function of negative sentence, providing state-of-the-art studies and a comprehensive bibliography on the acquisition, processing, and historical development of negation and its interaction with other operators. the chapters explore polarity, "illogical" negation, and the grammatical semantic, and pragmatic factors in cross-linguistic expression of negation.