Neural Plasticity and MemoryNeural Plasticity and Memory



A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory.

Author: Federico Bermudez-Rattoni

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420008412

Category:

Page: 368

View: 472

A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory. Leading specialists share their scientific experience in the field, covering a wide range of topics where molecular, genetic, behavioral, and brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate how cellular and brain circuits may be modified by experience. In each chapter, researchers present findings and explain their innovative methodologies. The book begins by introducing key issues and providing a historical overview of the field of memory consolidation. The following chapters review the putative genetic and molecular mechanisms of cell plasticity, elaborating on how experience could induce gene and protein expression and describing their role in synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. They explore how putative modifications of brain circuits and synaptic elements through experience can become relatively permanent and hence improve brain function. Interdisciplinary reviews focus on how nerve cell circuitry, molecular expression, neurotransmitter release, and electrical activity are modified during the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory. The book also covers receptor activation/deactivation by different neurotransmitters that enable the intracellular activation of second messengers during memory formation. It concludes with a summary of current research on the modulation and regulation that different neurotransmitters and stress hormones have on formation and consolidation of memory.

Handbook of in Vivo Neural Plasticity TechniquesHandbook of in Vivo Neural Plasticity Techniques



This is the ideal resource for anyone new to the study of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience who seeks an introduction to state-of-the-art techniques.

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128120279

Category:

Page: 574

View: 355

Handbook of in Vivo Neural Plasticity Techniques, Volume 28: A Systems Neuroscience Approach to the Neural Basis of Memory and Cognition gives a comprehensive overview of the current methods and approaches that are used to study neural plasticity from a systems neuroscience perspective. In addition, the book offers in-depth methodological advice that provides the necessary foundation for researchers establishing methods and students who need to understand the theoretical and methodological bases of these approaches. This is the ideal resource for anyone new to the study of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience who seeks an introduction to state-of-the-art techniques. Offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to studying neuroplasticity in vivo Combines discussions of theoretical underpinnings with the methodological and technical aspects necessary to guarantee success Arranged in a uniform format that clearly and concisely lays out descriptions, methods and the pitfalls of various techniques

Sleep Memory and Synaptic PlasticitySleep Memory and Synaptic Plasticity



This book is a valuable reference resource for students and researchers working in the area of sleep, memory, or neuronal plasticity.

Author: Sushil K. Jha

Publisher:

ISBN: 9811328153

Category:

Page: 254

View: 680

Over the years there has been growing interest among the scientific community in investigating sleep and how it affects the memory and other brain functions. It is now well established that sleep helps in memory consolidation and induction of neural plasticity, and that short-term deprivation of either total sleep or rapid eye movement sleep alone can induce memory deficits very quickly. Quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep architecture after different training tasks further suggest that discrete memory types may require specific sleep stage/s for optimal memory consolidation, and studies indicate that sleep deprivation alters synaptic plasticity and membrane excitability in the hippocampal neurons and synaptic up-scaling in the cortical neurons. Further, sleep alteration during pregnancy may increase the risk of depression and adversely affect maternal-child relationships, parenting practices, family functioning, and children's development and general wellbeing. This book coherently discusses all these aspects, with a particular focus on the possible role of sleep in memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity. It also highlights the detrimental effects of sleep loss on mental health, the immune system and cognition. This book is a valuable reference resource for students and researchers working in the area of sleep, memory, or neuronal plasticity.

Mechanisms of MemoryMechanisms of Memory



Written in an engaging and easily readable style and extensively illustrated with many new, full-color figures to help explain key concepts, this book demystifies the complexities of memory and deepens the reader’s understanding.

Author: J. David Sweatt

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080959199

Category:

Page: 362

View: 107

This fully revised second edition provides the only unified synthesis of available information concerning the mechanisms of higher-order memory formation. It spans the range from learning theory, to human and animal behavioral learning models, to cellular physiology and biochemistry. It is unique in its incorporation of chapters on memory disorders, tying in these clinically important syndromes with the basic science of synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. It also covers cutting-edge approaches such as the use of genetically engineered animals in studies of memory and memory diseases. Written in an engaging and easily readable style and extensively illustrated with many new, full-color figures to help explain key concepts, this book demystifies the complexities of memory and deepens the reader’s understanding. More than 25% new content, particularly expanding the scope to include new findings in translational research. Unique in its depth of coverage of molecular and cellular mechanisms Extensive cross-referencing to Comprehensive Learning and Memory Discusses clinically relevant memory disorders in the context of modern molecular research and includes numerous practical examples

Neurogenesis and Neural PlasticityNeurogenesis and Neural Plasticity



This volume brings together authors working on a wide range of topics to provide an up to date account of the underlying mechanisms and functions of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the adult brain.

Author: Catherine Belzung

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642362323

Category:

Page: 401

View: 594

This volume brings together authors working on a wide range of topics to provide an up to date account of the underlying mechanisms and functions of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in the adult brain. With an increasing understanding of the role of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis it is possible to envisage improvements or novel treatments for a number of diseases and the possibility of harnessing these phenomena to reduce the impact of ageing and to provide mechanisms to repair the brain.

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal PlasticityMolecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity



This volume presents research areas which have not been highlighted in the past.

Author: Yigal H. Ehrlich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461372097

Category:

Page: 229

View: 367

Numerous studies have proven the biological basis of memory formation and have begun to identify the biochemical traces and cellular circuits that are formed by experience, and which participate int the storage of information in the brain, its retention for long durations, and its retrieval upon demand. Cells in the nervous system have the capability of undergoing extremely long-lasting alterations in response to hormonal, pharmacological, and environmental stimulations. The mechanisms underlying this neuronal plasticity are activated by experiential inputs and operate in the process of learning and the formation of memories in the brain. This volume presents research areas which have not been highlighted in the past. In addition to studies on the involement of functional proteins in neuronal adaptation, this volume presents recent developments on the critical roles of bioactive lipids and nucleotides in these processes. In addition to the widely studied role of second messengers, a review of studies on extracellular phosphorylation systems operating on the surface of brain neurons is presented.The first section of the volume presents studies of basic mechanisms operating in a wide range of adaptive processes. The second section presents recent advances in investigations that have demonstrated the clinical implications of this research. These include: state of the art use of transgenic models in studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated in familial Alzheimer's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; studies of specific proteins implicated in Alzheimer's disease, including an adapter that binds to the beta-amyloid precurser protein (beta-APP) and the microtubular protein Tau and its membrane-bound counterpart. The advantages of using cell culture models for elucidating the causes of neuronal degeneration and for identifying mechanisms of neuroprotection are also presented among the chapters in the section on clinical implications.

Interaction of Synaptic Plasticity with Oscillations and Connectivity Lesion for Memory and Learning in Neural Network ModelsInteraction of Synaptic Plasticity with Oscillations and Connectivity Lesion for Memory and Learning in Neural Network Models



Learning is a common ability, accompanied by gamma oscillation, across species to acquire new knowledge stored in the hippocampus and neocortex into short-term and long-term memory, respectively.

Author: Kwan Tung Li

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1286934157

Category:

Page: 210

View: 889

Learning is a common ability, accompanied by gamma oscillation, across species to acquire new knowledge stored in the hippocampus and neocortex into short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thus, memory is first stored as short-term memory quickly and then consolidated into long-term memory in a longer timescale. Excitatory to excitatory (E → E ) spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), an experimentally observable synaptic plasticity, is a widely used mechanism to form synaptic clusters in neural network models, where memory is proposed to be stored in strengthened synapses within the cluster. However, the interaction between gamma oscillation and STDP is unclear. On the other hand, the role of inhibitory plasticity in memory cluster formation attracts the attention of scientists in recent years, but it is not well understood yet because of the numerous species of inhibitory neurons and their plasticity. Besides, connectivity lesion, such as induced by Alzheimer's disease, causes memory deficits and abnormal gamma oscillation, but its relation to memory cluster is still an open question. My doctoral research thus aimed to study the interaction among different types of synaptic plasticity, gamma oscillation and circuit connectivity in memory learning and recall through computer simulation of the integrate-and-fire neuronal network of excitatory and inhibitory (E-I) neurons. i In the first part of my study, we explored the interaction between gamma oscillation and E → E STDP in an E-I integrate-and-fire neuronal network with triplet STDP, heterosynaptic plasticity, and transmitter-induced plasticity. We show that the plasticity performance depends on the synchronization levels accompanied by the emergence of gamma oscillations. Moreover, gamma oscillation is beneficial to form a unique network structure through synaptic potentiation. Secondly, we were inspired by an experimental result to study the functional role of excitatory to inhibitory ( E → I ) plasticity in memory consolidation through a feedforward two-layer E-I circuit model. We found that E → I plasticity can prevent overexcitation and assist memory cluster formation. We also predict that suitable pulse input to inhibitory neurons can rescue the memory performance deficits in the absence of E → I plasticity. Thirdly, we used E-I neuronal network model to investigate the effect of connectivity reduction as a result of Alzheimer's diseases on the interaction between circuit dynamics and STDP and the rescue of memory performance by optogenetic stimulation found in the experiments. It is found that the firing rate of the persistent activity is increased if connectivity is reduced mildly because of a transition from synchronous state to asynchronous state, while the persistent activity cannot be maintained and the firing rate is reduced with severe connectivity reduction. iv Furthermore, we found that stimulation with gamma frequency in circuits with connectivity lesion is the best for memory rescue because it can suppress the activation of the memory clusters that were initially activated in the lesion circuit. Moreover, we found that connectivity reduction causes the merging of memory clusters and the deterioration of existing memories during learning new memory with STDP. The whole study gives more insight into the co-evolution between microscopic synaptic dynamics, such as synaptic weight change, firing rate and synchronization of neuron spikes, and macroscopic phenomena, like gamma oscillation, memory performance, and connectivity. Our results may have implications in clinical applications to develop suitable brain stimulation schemes for memory rescue in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the understanding of the interaction among neural connectivity, dynamics, and plasticity may also offer insight into braininspired neural networks in artificial intelligence.

Sleep Neuronal Plasticity and Brain FunctionSleep Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function



This book reviews current knowledge on the importance of sleep for brain function, from molecular mechanisms to behavioral output, with special emphasis on the question of how sleep and sleep loss ultimately affect cognition and mood.

Author: Peter Meerlo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662468784

Category:

Page: 559

View: 611

This book reviews current knowledge on the importance of sleep for brain function, from molecular mechanisms to behavioral output, with special emphasis on the question of how sleep and sleep loss ultimately affect cognition and mood. It provides an extensive overview of the latest insights in the role of sleep in regulating gene expression, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis and how that in turn is linked to learning and memory processes. In addition, readers will learn about the potential clinical implications of insufficient sleep and discover how chronically restricted or disrupted sleep may contribute to age-related cognitive decline and the development of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. The book consists of 19 chapters, written by experts in basic sleep research and sleep medicine, which together cover a wide range of topics on the importance of sleep and consequences of sleep disruption. This book will be of interest to students, researchers and clinicians with a general interest in brain function or a specific interest in sleep.