Utrecht: Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University. Musil, J. (1987) Housing
Policy and the Social–Spatial Structure of Cities in a Socialist Country: The
Example of Prague. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 11 (1
Author: Sako Musterd
Based on empirical research from 29 major postwar housing estates in 15 European cities, this collection explores mass housing experiments, examining the problems, policy responses and residents' everyday experiences in the estates in the context of change and regeneration.
For many inside and outside the region, the uniformity of these buildings became symbols of the dullness and drudgery of everyday life. Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity complicates this common perception.
Author: Kimberly Elman Zarecor
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
Eastern European prefabricated housing blocks are often vilified as the visible manifestations of everything that was wrong with state socialism. For many inside and outside the region, the uniformity of these buildings became symbols of the dullness and drudgery of everyday life. Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity complicates this common perception. Analyzing the cultural, intellectual, and professional debates surrounding the construction of mass housing in early postwar Czechoslovakia, Zarecor shows that these housing blocks served an essential function in the planned economy and reflected an interwar aesthetic, derived from constructivism and functionalism, that carried forward into the 1950s. With a focus on prefabricated and standardized housing built from 1945 to 1960, Zarecor offers broad and innovative insights into the country’s transition from capitalism to state socialism. She demonstrates that during this shift, architects and engineers consistently strove to meet the needs of Czechs and Slovaks despite challenging economic conditions, a lack of material resources, and manufacturing and technological limitations. In the process, architects were asked to put aside their individual creative aspirations and transform themselves into technicians and industrial producers. Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity is the first comprehensive history of architectural practice and the emergence of prefabricated housing in the Eastern Bloc. Through discussions of individual architects and projects, as well as building typologies, professional associations, and institutional organization, it opens a rare window into the cultural and economic life of Eastern Europe during the early postwar period.
Town, 155, 158, 159; universities, 152, 158, 162; Western models, 29, 151,155,
159 shanty towns, 28, 217, 223, 233. See also informal settlements ... housing
socialism, Soviet. See mass housing, socialist; Soviet Union The Socialist City ...
Author: Richard Harris
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
The purpose of The Suburban Land Question is to identify the common elements of land development in suburban regions around the world.
This continued a trend where city centers were increasingly dominated by
monumental ensembles of governmental offices, elite housing, prestigious
cultural institutions, and historical monuments while mass housing and industry
occupied the ...
Author: Alexander C. Diener
The development of post-socialist cities has become a major field of study among critical theorists from across the social sciences and humanities. Originally constructed under the dictates of central planners and designed to serve the demands of command economies, post-socialist urban centers currently develop at the nexus of varied and often competing economic, cultural, and political forces. Among these, nationalist aspirations, previously simmering beneath the official rhetoric of communist fraternity and veneer of architectural conformity, have emerged as dominant factors shaping the urban landscape. This book explores this burgeoning field of research through detailed cases studies relating to the cultural politics of architecture, urban planning, and identity in the post-socialist cities of Eurasia. This book was published as a special issue of Nationalities Papers.
24 Richard Antony French, F. E. Ian Hamilton, eds., The Socialist City (Chichester
: John Wiley & Sons, 1979). ... public housing; the predominance of mass
housing in the habitat regime; the deterioration of older parts of the city; belated ...
Author: Daniel Kiss
This book examines Budapest’s urban development, planning, and governance between 1990 and 2010. In the face of socialist urbanization’s structural legacies, the recent radical decentralization of government and resources and the impacts of a post-socialist war of ideologies, a trend is analyzed which leads to an urbanization mostly characterized by business-dominated development projects not integrated into any grand urban design. The author claims this outcome to be typical of the development of post-socialist cities and presents it in an abstract model establishing links between particular historical background conditions and the phenomena of Budapest’s recent urbanization. With a conversation between Kees Christiaanse, Ákos Moravánszky, and the author.
Author: Florian Urban
Tower and Slab looks at the contradictory history of the modernist mass housing block - home to millions of city dwellers around the world. Few urban forms have roused as much controversy. While in the United States decades-long criticism caused the demolition of most mass housing projects for the poor, in the booming metropolises of Shanghai and Mumbai remarkably similar developments are being built for the wealthy middle class. While on the surface the modernist apartment block appears universal, it is in fact diverse in its significance and connotations as its many different cultural contexts. Florian Urban studies the history of mass housing in seven narratives: Chicago, Paris, Berlin, Brasilia, Mumbai, Moscow, and Shanghai. Investigating the complex interactions between city planning and social history, Tower and Slab shows how the modernist vision to house the masses in serial blocks succeeded in certain contexts and failed in others. Success and failure, in this respect, refers not only to the original goals – to solve the housing crisis and provide modern standards for the entire society – but equally to changing significance of the housing blocks within the respective societies and their perception by architects, politicians, and inhabitants. These differences show that design is not to blame for mass housing’s mixed record of success. The comparison of the apparently similar projects suggests that triumph or disaster does not depend on a single variable but rather on a complex formula that includes not only form, but also social composition, location within the city, effective maintenance, and a variety of cultural, social, and political factors.
There have been constructed many landscape features aimed to correspond to
the social aspect of the communist ideology, like mass housing, cultural and sport
facilities, schools, technical infrastructure and many others. Most of the newly ...
Author: Mariusz Czepczyński
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Since the velvet revolution of 1989, the totalitarian communist urbanscapes of central European cities have been 'cleansed' or 'recycled', bringing in new architectural, functional and social forms to transform how they look and how they are used. This book examines the culturally conditional variations between local powers and structures despite the similarities in the general processes and systems. It assesses whether these urbanscapes clearly reflect the social, cultural and political conditions and aspirations of these transitional countries and so a critical analysis of them provides important insights.
The problem of mass housing at the time of the New Deal inherently bred
socialist utopian visions of a better city. The modernist manifestation — the
aesthetic of public housing — was a function of the political and practical
transformation new ...
Author: Dana Cuff
Publisher: MIT Press
A look at urban transformation through the architecture and land development of large-scale residential projects.
Drawing upon communist and Confucian philosophies of frugality, whereby mass
education and self-subsistence ... The frugal city, the city that combined mass
housing with minimal expenditure, redefined Bauhaus style as proletarian.
Author: Amy Bingaman
Utopia has become a dirty word in recent scholarship on modernism, architecture, urban planning and gender studies. Many utopian designs now appear impractical, manifesting an arrogant disregard for the lived experiences of the ordinary inhabitants who make daily use of global public and private spaces. The essays in Embodied Utopias argue that the gendered body is the crux of the hopes and disappointments of modern urban and suburban utopias of the Americas, Europe and Asia. They reassess utopian projects - masculinist, feminist, colonialist, progressive - of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; they survey the dystopian landscapes of the present; and they gesture at the potential for an embodied approach to the urban future, to the changing spaces of cities and virtual landscapes.
In Building Socialism Christina Schwenkel examines the utopian visions of an expert group of Vietnamese and East German urban planners who sought to transform the devastated industrial town of Vinh into a model socialist city.
Author: Christina Schwenkel
Publisher: Duke University Press
Following a decade of U.S. bombing campaigns that obliterated northern Vietnam, East Germany helped Vietnam rebuild in an act of socialist solidarity. In Building Socialism Christina Schwenkel examines the utopian visions of an expert group of Vietnamese and East German urban planners who sought to transform the devastated industrial town of Vinh into a model socialist city. Drawing on archival and ethnographic research in Vietnam and Germany with architects, engineers, construction workers, and tenants in Vinh’s mass housing complex, Schwenkel explores the material and affective dimensions of urban possibility and the quick fall of Vinh’s new built environment into unplanned obsolescence. She analyzes the tensions between aspirational infrastructure and postwar uncertainty to show how design models and practices that circulated between the socialist North and the decolonizing South underwent significant modification to accommodate alternative cultural logics and ideas about urban futurity. By documenting the building of Vietnam’s first planned city and its aftermath of decay and repurposing, Schwenkel argues that underlying the ambivalent and often unpredictable responses to modernist architectural forms were anxieties about modernity and the future of socialism itself.
8 R.A. French and F.E. Ian Hamilton, The Socialist City: Spatial Structure and
Urban Policy (Chichester and New York: Wiley, ... See Virág Molnár, “In Search of
the Ideal Socialist Home in PostStalinist Hungary: Prefabricated Mass Housing or
Author: Asst Prof David Rifkind
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This book provides a comprehensive, critical overview of the developments in architecture from 1960 to 2010. The first section provides a presentation of major movements in architecture after 1960, and the second, a geographic survey that covers a wide range of territories around the world. This book not only reflects the different perspectives of its various authors, but also charts a middle course between the 'aesthetic' histories that examine architecture solely in terms of its formal aspects, and the more 'ideological' histories that subject it to a critique that often skirts the discussion of its formal aspects.
Mass. Housing. to. Open. Building. Governments have designed and executed
large urban interventions throughout ... Championed by government and
institutional bureaucracies, mass housing spread throughout capitalist and
Author: Stephen H. Kendall
Residential Open Building, the result of a CIB Task Group 'Open Building Implementation', provides a state-of-the-art review of open building, fundamental principles, recent developments, and international coverage of current projects on both the public and private arena. Open Building is a highly flexible and economical method of building which has far reaching advantages for urban designers, architects, contractors, developers and end users.
Town. Planning. in. the. Early. Twentieth. Century. The lack of previous traditions
in Zionist architecture for the new-old homeland ... by the need for physical
expression of the new social structures and the demand for mass housing for
new immigrants, as well as the shortage of funds. ... a socialist ideal.1 Early
Israeli architecture is divided into four phases: up to 1920, the 1920s, the 1930s,
and the 1940s.
Author: Nathan Harpaz
Publisher: Purdue University Press
Established as a Jewish settlement in 1909 and dedicated a year later, Tel Aviv has grown over the last century to become Israel's financial center and the country's second largest city. This book examines a major period in the city's establishment when Jewish architects moved from Europe, including Alexander Levy of Berlin, and attempted to establish a new style of Zionist urbanism in the years after World War I. The author explores the interplay of an ambitious architectural program and the pragmatic needs that drove its chaotic implementation during a period of dramatic population growth. He explores the intense debate among the Zionist leaders in Berlin in regard to future Jewish settlement in the land of Israel after World War I, and the difficulty in imposing a town plan and architectural style based on European concepts in an environment where they clashed with desires for Jewish revival and self-identity. While “modern” values advocated universality, Zionist ideas struggled with the conflict between the concept of “New Order” and traditional and historical motifs. As well as being the first detailed study of the formative period in Tel Aviv's development, this book presents a valuable case study in nation-building and the history of Zionism. Meticulously researched, it is also illustrated with hundreds of plans and photographs that show how much of the fabric of early twentieth century Tel Aviv persists in the modern city.
Plastics, the modern apartment, and socialism were radically new, but after the
euphoria of their newness faded, the jolt of the ... Social relations changed
drastically for those who moved into the satellite cities, causing people to change
their lives. ... thatlingered for residents of the mass housing developments long
after the excitement over having a bathroom and modern-looking apartment wore
Author: Eli Rubin
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Eli Rubin takes an innovative approach to consumer culture to explore questions of political consensus and consent and the impact of ideology on everyday life in the former East Germany. Synthetic Socialism explores the history of East Germany through the production and use of a deceptively simple material: plastic. Rubin investigates the connections between the communist government, its Bauhaus-influenced designers, its retooled postwar chemical industry, and its general consumer population. He argues that East Germany was neither a totalitarian state nor a niche society but rather a society shaped by the confluence of unique economic and political circumstances interacting with the concerns of ordinary citizens. To East Germans, Rubin says, plastic was a high-technology material, a symbol of socialism's scientific and economic superiority over capitalism. Most of all, the state and its designers argued, plastic goods were of a particularly special quality, not to be thrown away like products of the wasteful West. Rubin demonstrates that this argument was accepted by the mainstream of East German society, for whom the modern, socialist dimension of a plastics-based everyday life had a deep resonance.
Today mass produced housing in western society is largely discredited as a
historic failure and blamed for urban ... Even two decades after the Soviet Union
has collapsed and capitalism has invaded the socialist city , the same design and
Author: Tim Rieniets
Author information Contributors to part 1 Ash Amin, Marc Angelil, Regina Bittner, Stephen Cairns, Kees Christiaanse, Angelus Eisinger, Orhan Esen, Gerald Frug, Stephen Graham, Dieter Läpple, Mark Michaeli, Robert Neuwirth, Arnold Reijndorp, Tim Rieniets, Christian Salewski, Saskia Sassen, Peter Sloterdijk, Michael Zinganel. Contributors to part 2 Crimson Architectural Historians, Interboro, Stephen Cairns, Daliana Suryawinata, Philipp Misselwitz, Can Altay, Jörg Stollmann, Rainer Hehl, Bart Goldhoorn, Alexander Sverdlov, and many others.
Case study : The socialist city Figure 3.5 A socialist city housing area Elek Tamás
UTCA Although the communist regimes of ... The square was frequently used for
military parades and mass demonstrations in support of the socialist regime .
Author: M. E. Witherick
Publisher: Nelson Thornes
Intended for students of A-Level geography, this book on the urban world offers a wide range of case studies and an integated approach to all aspect of geographical study. Students are helped to progress from GCSE and Standard Grade as they work through the questions that appear at regular intervals in the book and the enquiry activities at the end of each chapter. One of a series of books, this title also provides exam support.
None of the smaller cities possess a specific image or local economic identity
which would raise their levels of ... s portrayal as a ' socialist city ' , based on its
extensive areas of ' socialist mass housing ' to accommodate the region ' s lignite
Author: Tom Hall
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
This work offers an assessment of the "entrepreneurial city"--Its strengths, weaknesses, problems and consequences - assessing how far "post-Fordist" city government is truly entrepreneurial and whether this is the best way to run urban areas.