Judgements. on. History. and. Historians. 'These are summary judgements –
classroom bullet-points, aimed with sniper-accuracy and drumhead-deadliness. It
is amazing how often – a century and a half ago – Burckhardt was right. And
Author: Jacob Burckhardt
Western Civilisation was in its pomp when Jacob Burckhardt delivered his Judgements on History and Historians; European Empires spanned the globe, while the modern age was being forged in the nationalist revolutions of 1848. As a tutor to the young Friedrich Nietzsche as well as one of the first historians to take 'culture' as his subject rather than the triumphs and travails of kings and generals, Burckhardt was at the vanguard of this modern sensibility. Ambitious in its scope, ranging from the days of Ancient Egypt, through the Reformation to the time of Napoleon, this is indeed a history of 'Western Civilization', written before two monstrous world wars threw such a concept into disrepute.
value or moral judgements on past events and personalities. But the very nature
of history and its terminology are found to involve unavoidable moral judgements.
This is because the historian deals with a live concern — human life — and has ...
Publisher: South Indian Studies
A book providing practical help to students at the graduate and postgraduate levels. What is given in the book is precise, clear and solid. The book's coverage and comprehensiveness, its scientific, analytical and critical treatment, its near perfect organization and arrangement, its clarity and easy methods of reference will make it a useful compendium for students and teachers. A teacher and lover of history the author has brought out philosophical, scientific, and ideological and linguistic perspectives to bear on the subject. Whether a student or teacher or a general reader, the manual can be expected to develop a healthy interest in history. The author has brought to bear philosophical, scientific, ideological and linguistic perspectives to bear on the subject.
The second consideration is similarly subordinate to the fourth: it would not
matter to the achievement of historical knowledge if ... If judgements of value can
be rationally supported then it would not matter if historians made such
Author: Jonathan Gorman
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
Has any question about the historical past ever been finally answered? Of course there is much disagreement among professional historians about what happened in the past and how to explain it. But this incisive study goes one step further and brings into question the very ability of historians to gather and communicate genuine knowledge about the past. Understanding Historyapplies this general question from the philosophy of history to economic history of American slaveholders. Do we understand the American slaveholders? Has the last word on the subject been said? Both the alleged “profitability” of slavery and the purported causes of the American Civil War are philosophically analyzed. Traditional narrative history and econometric history are examined and compared, and their different philosophical assumptions made explicit. The problem of justifying historical methodologies is first set in the wider context of the philosophical problem of knowledge, then lucidly explained and resolved along pragmatic lines. The novelty of Gorman’s approach lies in its comparison of narrative with econometric history, its analysis of empathetic understanding in terms of cost-benefit analysis, and its elucidation of the metaphysical presuppositions of empiricism. It stands out especially for the clarity, rigor, and simplicity of its arguments.
5 At our universities, the historians like to dump the Ancient History course in the
lap of the philologists, and vice versa. Here andthere it istreated like a poor ...
Judgements on History and Historians, trans.H.Zohn, Boston, Beacon Press,
Author: Neville Morley
Ancient History: Key Themes and Approaches is a sourcebook of writings on ancient history. It presents over 500 of the most important stimulating and provocative arguments by modern writers on the subject, and as such constitutes an invaluable reference resource. The first section deals with different aspects of life in the ancient world, such as democracy, imperialism, slavery and sexuality, while the second section covers the ideas of key ancient historians and other writers on classical antiquity. Overall this book offers an invaluable introduction to the most important ideas, theories and controversies in ancient history, and a thought-provoking survey of the range of views and approaches to the subject.
Chapter 10 From Universal History to the history of Europe as Idea From the late
19th century , attempts to define Europe in ... intellectual points we are now no
longer part of 1 Jacob Burckhardt , Judgements on History and Historians , trans .
Author: Mary Anne Perkins
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This book critically explores the idea of Europe since the French Revolution from the perspective of intellectual history. It traces the dominant and recurring theme of Europe-as-Christendom in discourse concerning the relationship of religion, politics and society, in historiography and hermeneutics, and in theories and constructions of identity and 'otherness'. It examines the evolution of a grand narrative by which European elites have sought to define European and national identity. This narrative, the author argues, maintains the existence of common historical and intellectual roots, common values, culture and religion. The book explores its powerful legacy in the positive creation of a sense of European unity, the ways in which it has been exploited for ideological purposes, and its impact on non-Christian communities within Europe.
... sceptical things that some theorists of history have said about, for example, the
quality of historical knowledge, and alert to what they perceive as the arrogance
of those philosophers or other theorists who make judgements about historians' ...
Author: Jonathan Gorman
The historical profession is not noted for examining its own methodologies. Indeed, most historians are averse to historical theory. In "Historical Judgement" Jonathan Gorman's response to this state of affairs is to argue that if we want to characterize a discipline, we need to look to persons who successfully occupy the role of being practitioners of that discipline. So to model historiography we must do so from the views of historians. Gorman begins by showing what it is to model a discipline by using recent philosophy of law and philosophy of science. There are different models at work, whose rivalry and resolution are to be historically understood. With this approach in place he is able to develop the history of historiography and explore the character of historiography as presented by historians. He reveals that historians conform to various norms - that historians now and in the past have agreed and disagreed about the same set of interrelated matters: truth-telling, moral judgement and the synthesis of facts - and it is this internal understanding that we need to recover if we are to arrive at a correct characterization of the discipline of historiography. Demonstrating how the practice of historiography requires choices and therefore the exercise of judgement, Gorman is able to show that in their making of judgements historians enjoy the immense benefit of hindsight. He shows how, in reflecting on their own discipline, historians have typically failed to attend adequately to the history of historiography, neglecting to situate previous historians within their historical contexts, or to pay adequate attention to the fact that present historians, too, are within a context that will change. In addition, Gorman's approach, which emphasizes the power and necessity of choice, and which rests on the pragmatic holistic empiricism of Quine, shows postmodernism not to be the threat that some historians feel it to be, indeed, it is shown to be a radical form of empiricism. Gorman shows how the historical enterprise may be established in our factual and moral understanding in the light of our choices and commitments to a shared world. "Historical Judgement" is an original and important contribution to the philosophy of history. By bringing together the ideas of historians and philosophers, Gorman presents a much more practitioner-focused examination of the discipline of history, one that will, hopefully, encourage historians to think more about the nature of what they do.
Moreover, to take neutrality as a value overriding all others is to set the
experience of the historian aside. ... Moreover, Collingwood asserts, such
judgements are necessary to history because they provide historians with the
criteria of selection ...
Author: Peter Johnson
Publisher: A&C Black
The Idea of History is the best known work of the Oxford philosopher and historian RG Collingwood. Published posthumously in 1946 it is, in effect, two books: a historiography and a philosophy of history. Students look to Collingwood for a history of thinking about history, and to discover his ideas about the nature of historical understanding. It is an indispensable text for historians and philosophers yet it is also highly challenging and many of Collingwood's innovations have been seriously misunderstood. The primary focus of this book is on Collingwood's actual arguments, especially the most radical of these, with the aim of elucidating their construction and appraising them in the clearest possible way. This guide is the ideal companion to Collingwood's classic text both for students coming to it for the first time and for those wishing to consider its arguments afresh. It offers clear and concise accounts of the book's composition; the intellectual context of Collingwood's ideas; its central arguments concerning the nature of history; and its reception and influence.
Most historians, however, would disagree with Bauer here. History is not "value
free," if what we mean by that phrase is that the historian refrains from making
value judgements. Historical inquiry aims at settling matters of fact, but this
Author: David J. Hawkin
Publisher: SUNY Press
Argues that the Fourth Gospel has “political dimensions” which offer both meaning and challenge to contemporary Christians.
Historians study the past or, more narrowly, what was doneor happened and
howthings were inthe human, social, even civilised ... of objective truth, inwhether
or notitbelongs tothe historian«s roletopass moral judgements on historical
Author: G.H.R. Parkinson
* Presents a broad survey of philosophical thought * Each chapter explores, and places in context, a major area of philosophical enquiry - including the theory of meaning and of truth, the theory of knowledge, the philosophies of mathematics, science and metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, moral and political philosophy, aesthetics, and religion * Annotated bibliographies for each chapter and indexes of names and subjects * Glossary of commonly-used philosophical terms * Chronological table of the history of philosophy from 1600 `It is a fine achievement and deserves the warmest praise ... Anyone interested in learning what contemporary philosophical debate is about will find this book invaluable ... for a book of this size and quality of content the cover price is modest. Every public library as well as every university, college and school library should have a copy on its shelves.' - Times Higher Education Supplement `A stimulating collection.' - Reference Reviews
Gaddis, J. L., The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (Oxford,
2003). Gallego, A. (ed.), Historia de la historiografía española (Madrid, 1999).
Gorman, J., Historical Judgement. The Limits of Historiographical Choice (
Author: Jeremy Black
Publisher: A&C Black
Contesting History is an authoritative guide to the positive and negative applications of the past in the public arena and what this signifies for the meaning of history more widely. Using a global, non-Western model, Jeremy Black examines the employment of history by the state, the media, the national collective memory and others and considers its fundamental significance in how we understand the past. Moving from public life pre-1400 to the struggle of ideologies in the 20th century and contemporary efforts to find meaning in historical narratives, Jeremy Black incorporates a great deal of original material on governmental, social and commercial influences on the public use of history. This includes a host of in-depth case studies from different periods of history around the world, and coverage of public history in a wider range of media, including TV and film. Readers are guided through this material by an expansive introduction, section headings, chapter conclusions and a selected further reading list. Written with eminent clarity and breadth of knowledge, Contesting History is a key text for all students of public history and anyone keen to know more about the nature of history as a discipline and concept.
Historical materials for the study of the bu reaucratization of education I am
interested in the bureaucratization of the contemporary school. ... The historian
cannot pass judgement on an individual oriental despot: he is a creature of his
Author: History of Education Society
Originally published in 1971, this volume examines the relationship between the history and sociology of education. History does not stand in isolation, but has much to draw from and contribute to, other disciplines. The methods and concepts of sociology, in particular, are exerting increasing influence on historical studies, especially the history of education. Since education is considered to be part of the social system, historians and sociologists have come to survey similar fields; yet each discipline appears to have its own aims and methodology.
Jenkins, K., On 'What is History?': From Carr and Elton to Rorty and White,
London: Routledge, 1995. Labedz, L., 'E. H. Carr: An Historian Overtaken by
History', Survey, 1988, 30(1–2): 94–111. Oldfield, A., 'Moral Judgements in
Author: Marnie Hughes-Warrington
Fifty Key Thinkers on History is a superb guide to historiography through the ages. The cross-section of debates and thinkers covered is unique in its breadth, taking in figures from ancient China, Greece and Rome, through the Middle Ages, to contemporary Europe, America, Africa and Australia; from Bede to Braudel; Marx to Michelet; Ranke to Rowbotham; Foucault to Fukuyama. Each clear and concise essay offers biographical information, a summary and discussion of the subjects approach to history and how others have engaged with it, a list of their major works and a guide to diverse resources for further study, including books, articles, films and websites.
What is being asserted is that these types of judgement have no place in the
world of the historian. Thus in conjunction with the ... If the historian creates
history why should such practical judgements be excluded? As we saw in
chapter one ...
Author: David Boucher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The methodology of the study of the history of political thought is an area of study which has occupied my interests for nearly a decade. I was introduced to the subject in University College, Swansea. My teachers there provided me with an excellent grounding in political studies. I am particularly indebted to Bruce Haddock, Peter Nicholson and W. H. Greenleaf. Professor Greenleaf was kind enough to supply me with a copy of his bibliography and copies of two of his unpublished papers. I continued to pursue my interest in methodology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. I am indebted to Ken Minogue and Robert Orr who taught me there. My greatest debt is to Dr. Joseph Femia ofthe University of Liverpool who devoted a great deal of time to considering the arguments presented here. His criticisms and suggestions for improvement proved to be invaluable. I would also like to thank Alan Ryan for his general comments and encouraging advice. It would be remiss of me if I neglected to express my gratitude to Dewi Beynon who was my first teacher of politics. The research for this project was carried out in the following places; The British Library of Political Science, London; The Sidney Jones Library, University of Liverpool; The National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; The Main Library, University of Edinburgh; The Arts and Social Science Library, University College, Cardiff; and the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Historical thinking, to my view, involves not one but two sets of judgements of
importance, the first defining or indicating in broad terms what the historian thinks
most worth knowing about, the second having to do with which aspects of the
Author: M.C. Doeser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The answer to philosophical questions will often depend on the position one takes regarding the fact-value problem. It is, therefore, not surprising that, in the tradition of western philosophy, the past 200 years or so record an animated discussion of it. In the present collection the debate is continued by representatives of various "schools" in contemporary western thought. A number of philosophers from non-western cultures, too, enter into it. The contributions do not all reflect on the same theme, nor do they use the same approach. Essays written by philosophers sympathetic to the analytical tradition are followed by reflections on the part of those inspired by phe nomenology. A third group of contributions is by non-western thinkers, who are more likely to approach the problem in terms of culture. Their engage ment with the issue clearly shows, among other things, that it is almost exclusively in the western tradition that the fact-value distinction is often understood as an outright dichotomy. The occasion for the publication of this collection is Dr. Cornelis Anthonie van Peursen's retirement as Professor of Philosophy. This year he leaves the Free University, Amsterdam; until 1982 he was professor at the University of Leyden as well. In the Netherlands and beyond he has become known for his concern with constructive comparison of diverging philosophical trends and the cross-cultural fertilization of thought. Characteristic of his career are his efforts to render the results of academic philosophizing understand able to a broader audience.
History. and. Historians. wo broad and wideranging explanations of the origins of
the Second World War thus confront one ... 'History will judge', chorused the
ambassadors in Berlin in 1939; but the judgements of historians have been
Author: P. M. H. Bell
PMH Bell's famous book is a comprehensive study of the period and debates surrounding the European origins of the Second World War. He approaches the subject from three different angles: describing the various explanations that have been offered for the war and the historiographical debates that have arisen from them, analysing the ideological, economic and strategic forces at work in Europe during the 1930s, and tracing the course of events from peace in 1932, via the initial outbreak of hostilities in 1939, through to the climactic German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 which marked the descent into general conflict. Written in a lucid, accessible style, this is an indispensable guide to the complex origins of the Second World War.