Exhibit 3.2 Examples of Foreign Direct Investments Available for Port
Development in Indonesia World Bank In May 2015, ... ASEAN Infrastructure
Fund (AIF) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) In order to address the
infrastructure investment ...
Author: Colin Duffield
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Infrastructure Investment in Indonesia: A Focus on Ports presents an important and original collation of current material investigating the efficient facilitation of major infrastructure projects in Indonesia and Australia, with an emphasis on infrastructure investment and a focus on port planning and development. This interdisciplinary collection—spanning the disciplines of engineering, law and planning—draws helpfully on a range of practical and theoretical perspectives. It is the collaborative effort of leading experts in the fields of infrastructure project initiation and financing, and is based on international research conducted by the University of Melbourne, Universitas Indonesia and Universitas Gadjah Mada. The volume opens with a macroscopic perspective, outlining the broader economic situations confronting Indonesia and Australia, before adopting a more microscopic perspective to closely examine the issues surrounding major infrastructure investment in both countries. Detailed case studies are provided, key challenges are identified, and evidence-based solutions are offered. These solutions respond to such topical issues as how to overcome delays in infrastructure project initiation; how to enhance project decision-making for the selection and evaluation of projects; how to improve overall efficiency in the arrangement of project finance and governance; and how to increase the return provided by investment in infrastructure. Special focus is given to proposed improvements to the portal cities of Indonesia in the areas of major infrastructure project governance, policies, engagement, operation and processes. By rigorously investigating the economic, transport, finance and policy aspects of infrastructure investment, this book will be a valuable resource for policy makers and government officials in Indonesia and Australia, infrastructure investment organisations, and companies involved in exporting services between Indonesia and Australia. This book will also be of interest to researchers and students of infrastructure planning and financing, setting a solid foundation for subsequent investigations of financing options for large-scale infrastructure developments.
The government has established an inter-ministerial Policy Committee for the
Acceleration of Infrastructure Provision or KKPPI which also contributes to the
evaluation process for infrastructure investment needs.5 KKPPI reports directly to
Publisher: OECD Publishing
OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Indonesia charts Indonesia’s progress in developing an effective policy framework to promote investment for development.
The region's large currency devaluations increased the cost of investments and
future operations of projects with sizable ... Of the $75 billion in private funds
invested in infrastructure projects during 1994-99, the Philippines, Indonesia, and
Author: Aldo Baietti
Publisher: World Bank Publications
This report analyzes the impact of the financial crisis on investment trends and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of private participation in infrastructure (PPI) in six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Indonesia's middle class is also a consuming, urbanizing class, and investing in
infrastructure and reducing inequality are crucial to ensure that growth is able to
keep pace with the demand for jobs. Indonesian policymakers are well-aware ...
Author: Amitav Acharya
Publisher: World Scientific
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world after China, India and the United States. It is also the world's largest Muslim majority country and the third largest democracy. Its economy is currently the 10th largest on the global scale. Indonesia is recognized as an emerging power, and a respected member of the international community. It plays an important role not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the world at large. Indonesia has defied the grim predictions about its imminent collapse following the ouster of Suharto in 1998. Its ability to rebuild and reinvigorate itself into its current status is one of the most impressive stories of the late 20th and early 21st century. Its journey since the fall of Suharto is inspiring at a time when the world has seen many failing nations, recurring economic crises, and growing radicalism and terrorism. Yet, the Indonesian story receives far less attention than the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa). The Indonesian story suggests a different pathway to emerging power status. This pathway is based not so much on military or economic resources. Rather, it lies in the ability of a country to develop a positive, virtuous correlation among three factors: democracy, development and stability, while pursuing a foreign policy of restraint towards neighbours and active engagement with the world at large. This is the key lesson from the story of Indonesia that this book seeks to present. It analyses Indonesia's foreign policy and international role under the democratic regime, with particular focus on its role as a leader of ASEAN, its relationship with the major powers of the Asia Pacific, and its place in the global order of the 21st century. Contents:Why Indonesia Matters?Democracy, Development and Stability: Creating a Virtuous CycleIndonesia and the Regional ArchitectureIndonesia and the Major PowersIndonesia as a Global ActorA Nation on the Move: Indonesian Voices Readership: General public, students, policy makers, and think tanks intellectuals. Key Features:First book that recognizes Indonesia as an emerging powerFirst book in a long time on overall Indonesian foreign policyAmong the first to study impact of democratization on foreign policy of IndonesiaKeywords:Indonesia;Rising Powers;ASEAN;Asia Pacific SecurityReviews: “Indonesia today offers an inspiring example of how democracy, development and stability can be made to work together to enhance a nation's prestige and influence on the global stage. Amitav Acharya's Indonesia Matters is an insightful account of the foreign policy of the world's largest Muslim country, demonstrating how democratic transformation strengthened Indonesia's leadership in ASEAN, the Asia Pacific, and the world at large.” Surin Pitsuwan Former Foreign Minister of Thailand and Secretary-General of ASEAN (2008–12) “Can a major new power rise in the community of nations without threatening its neighbours, destabilizing existing arrangements, and producing an arms race? This is a major question for this century, after the past one in which Germany and Japan established such alarming precedents. China and India do not provide much reassurance that we are wiser than we were. Indonesia, however, with one of the lowest arms expenditures in the world either per capita or in relation to GNP looks a promising case for an alternative model. This book is a very timely study of a critical issue for our times.” Anthony Reid Emeritus Professor College of Asia and the Pacific Australian National University “Amitav Acharya has produced a timely and illuminating examination of Indonesia's foreign policy since the establishment of democracy after Suharto's period in power. Drawing on extensive interviews and keen observations, Amitav skilfully traces the evolution of Indonesia's diplomacy from its modest regional roots to the rarefied world of global engagement. This is an important book and a necessary read for all those who follow Indonesia's remarkable ascent.” Kurt Campbell Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (2009–13) “Acharya has provided an excellent contribution in the discourse on Indonesia's foreign policy. He has shown the unique pathway of the country in achieving its current place in regional and global politics through the virtuous cycle of democracy, development, and stability.” The Indonesian Quarterly
Fuel subsidy reform has freed up funds for infrastructure investment Indonesia's
GDP growth rate has been slowing for a number of years, falling from 6.5% in
2011 to 5% in 2014 and 4.7% in first-quarter 2015 – the lowestrate since 2009.
Author: Oxford Business Group
Publisher: Oxford Business Group
With the application of the right policies, Indonesia could return to growth above 6%, and perhaps eventually reach the 7% target set by the new president. The government intends to double expenditure in the key areas of public works, transport and agriculture, and new plans include the construction of 2600 km of roads, 15 airports, 24 ports, 3258 km of railway and the addition of around 35,000 MW to the state electricity company’s current capacity. The investments to be made in infrastructure have the potential to boost the economy in both the short and long term. A shift to more investment and less consumption would help lead to more sustainable growth and insulate the country from external shocks. Already the numbers are starting to head in the right direction.
The third was to allow a larger degree of foreign portfolio and direct investment in
Indonesia. ... suggests that the instinctive response of the government was to
keep economic growth on track by continuing to make infrastructure investments.
Author: Wing Thye Woo
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Living Standards Measurement Studies Paper 104. The impact of children's health on their schooling success has been the focus of much research. While studies have concluded that there is a correlation between the health of the children and their performance at school, there is an increasing argument surrounding the limitations of the research. Many such studies measure schooling achievement through school attendance rates. This paper analyzes the failure of research to control for the fact that schooling and health are determined simultaneously. Such failure would lead to biased estimates. The study explores the possible biases and provides new evidence on the interrelationship between child health and schooling.
For example, Mawardi (2004) showed that infrastructure had a positive impact on
Indonesia's economic growth. A recent empirical study by Mustajab (2009)
estimated that a 1% increase in infrastructure investment contributes 0.3% to ...
Author: Hal Hill
Publisher: Anthem Press
‘Diagnosing the Indonesian Economy: Toward Inclusive and Green Growth’ discusses the critical constrains to inclusive economic growth in Indonesia. The volume includes a broad overview of Indonesia’s development since the 1960s, and features an analytic framework for the study that aims to identify the most binding constraints. The chapters analyze macroeconomic management since the Asian financial crisis; the status of Indonesia’s industrial transformation; the challenges pertaining to Indonesia’s infrastructure; the situation of human capital and employment; the record on poverty reduction; the impact and status of the decentralization effort; and the challenges attendant to the country’s environment and natural resources.
Infrastructure investment in Indonesia has fallen as state-owned enterprises cut
energy investment (in percent of GDP) Source: Indonesia Infrastructure Finance
Facility (World Bank, 2009). Note: SOE=state-owned enterprises. several
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Provide an update on the sharp, surprising and welcome rebound in economic activity in East Asia and Pacific, and policies needed to transform the rebound into recovery.
Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities : Indonesia Public Expenditure
Review ... Under current plans for limited debt restructuring it is likely that several
years will pass before new investment can ... There are wide disparities across
provinces in access to infrastructure, with those outside Java and Bali lagging ...
Publisher: World Bank Publications
After almost a decade of successful macroeconomic management and several bold policy decisions, Indonesia is finally in a position of fiscal strength. Since 2006, Indonesia has freed up "fiscal space" of about US
Some Projections Indonesia's infrastructure needs can be gauged by figures
often used in the current national plan. The following figures are ... The total
demand for infrastructure investment is estimated at US$54.9 billion. Of this the
Author: Mohamed Ariff
Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
The traditional form of official development assistance (ODA) has assumed less importance. With more liberalized conditions fostering a more open economic environment in the developing countries, private resources and multilateral bank lending have assumed a leading role. This means that those countries not favouring open policies will be left behind while they rely on ODA as the only resource -- yet this resource is declining.Following the devastations caused by the 1997 Asian Currency Crisis, it is clear that coherent APEC guidance to create sufficiency in infrastructure is necessary. A reassessment of ODA for infrastructure is recommended while not demeaning the dependence of some poorer nations on the traditonal form of development assistance.
As a result of these factors , the Government of Indonesia was able to embark on
a long - term programmatic approach to infrastructure investment and
development . This approach , the Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development ...
Author: Hendropranoto Suselo
This book examines urban Indonesia and a decade of experience with the government of Indonesia's Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Program (IUIDP). It focuses on IUIDP as a living experiment that probes many of the important urban development issues : infrastructure as a key to urban and national development ; efficiency and equity of service delivery; expenditure planning and programming; sectoral coordination and integration; administrative and political decentralization; institutional and human resource development; local revenue generation and financial management; operations and maintenance management; private sector and community participation; environmental improvement and management; appropriate role of donors and technical assistance, and more. (Adapté du résumé de l'éditeur).
Infrastructure investment invites controversy. Large projects can acquire a
notoriety that even their most irrepressible supporters cannot deny, such as
modern highway systems in Germany and Italy and in New York City built by
dictators and ...
Author: Jamie S. Davidson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A rich, contextual analysis of the politics that inhibit the adoption of liberalizing reforms in Indonesia's infrastructure sector.