Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing EconomiesHandbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies



""This book focuses on the need, development, adoption, usage, and impact of information systems among organizations in developing economies"--Provided by publisher"--

Author: Richard Boateng

Publisher:

ISBN: 1799826104

Category:

Page: 740

View: 586

Technology provides accessibility otherwise unavailable to the people who can benefit from it the most. As new digital tools become less expensive and more widely available, research and real-world cases that examine the union between emergent countries and information systems are essential in determining the next steps for these nations. The Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies is a pivotal reference source that explores the effects of technological data handling within developing economies. Covering a broad range of topics such as emerging digital technologies, socio-economic development, and technology startups, this book is ideally designed for software programmers, policymakers, practitioners, educators, academicians, students, and researchers.

Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing EconomiesHandbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies



The contextual influences, constraints, and dynamism of information system development and usage in developing economies have been demonstrated as an ...

Author: Boateng, Richard

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799826118

Category:

Page: 695

View: 692

Technology provides accessibility otherwise unavailable to the people who can benefit from it the most. As new digital tools become less expensive and more widely available, research and real-world cases that examine the union between emergent countries and information systems are essential in determining the next steps for these nations. The Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies is a pivotal reference source that explores the effects of technological data handling within developing economies. Covering a broad range of topics such as emerging digital technologies, socio-economic development, and technology startups, this book is ideally designed for software programmers, policymakers, practitioners, educators, academicians, students, and researchers.

4C ID Model and Cognitive Approaches to Instructional Design and Technology Emerging Research and Opportunities4C ID Model and Cognitive Approaches to Instructional Design and Technology Emerging Research and Opportunities



Organizational Transformation in Developing Economies by New and Emerging Information Systems. In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing ...

Author: de Miranda, Guilhermina Maria Lobato Ferreira

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799840978

Category:

Page: 243

View: 388

There has been an evolution of the explanations on the results of research on human learning and how digital technologies have supported the design of more efficient learning environments. Previous theories such as Richard Mayer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning and John Sweller’s cognitive load theory have gained signification attention and remain the two main theories within the multimedia learning field. However, there has not yet been a book compiled of several investigations on the specific 4C-ID model that covers different domains of knowledge. The 4C-ID model combines the two main theories of Richard Mayer and John Sweller to advance the field of learning and instruction. 4C-ID Model and Cognitive Approaches to Instructional Design and Technology: Emerging Research and Opportunities explores the behavioral and constructivist approaches to learning and instruction and focuses mainly on the particular cognitive approach and resulting theories and insights of the 4C-ID model. The chapters present the results of three experimental studies applied to the teaching of electrical circuits, initiation to computer programming using the Alice microworld, and computer programming using Python textual language. This book is a valuable resource tool for computer programmers, computer scientists, teachers, educational psychologists, practitioners, researchers, academicians, and students interested in the various approaches to learning and instruction in terms of the 4C-ID instructional model.

Building Competencies for Organizational Success Emerging Research and OpportunitiesBuilding Competencies for Organizational Success Emerging Research and Opportunities



Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) Implementation and Use in a Developing Economy. In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing ...

Author: Harper, Donta S.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799865186

Category:

Page: 217

View: 119

Competencies historically have been vital for skill building, and competency-based approaches have demonstrated their impact on business performance and organizational effectiveness in today’s marketplace. However, this has been discussed exclusively in chapters and books as separate propositions. It is essential to understand the two as linked together, building upon the other, merging individual and organizational perspectives of competencies development. Building Competencies for Organizational Success: Emerging Research and Opportunities presents a narrowly focused discussion of competency-based approaches and performance management and examines how these concepts align with business processes and procedures, management systems, and business objectives. It brings to light a new era of business performance management that complements the collaborative working of individuals and organizations to achieve business desires and addresses such topics as competent organization, knowledge management, and performance management systems. This book helps leaders, managers, executives, consultants, practitioners, academicians, researchers, and students with the understanding of how to utilize intellectual assets as well as how to develop a better future and outcomes for business and people management.

Examining and Solving Health Disparities in the United States Emerging Research and OpportunitiesExamining and Solving Health Disparities in the United States Emerging Research and Opportunities



In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies (pp. 471–479). IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1- ...

Author: Green, Cheryl

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799838753

Category:

Page: 177

View: 114

Disparities in healthcare arise when there is an imbalance between opportunities to achieve optimal healthcare with access, education, and financial means. However, the difficult subject of health disparities in healthcare and its historical origins demonstrate that culture and race may contribute to health crises of minority groups within the United States. Educating vulnerable populations on making lifestyle modifications and reducing stress without educating healthcare professionals about increasing their awareness of hidden biases, prejudgment, and discrimination, will allow health disparities to remain. Examining and Solving Health Disparities in the United States: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a critical reference book that provides discussion on the topic of inequities in healthcare that impact health disparities and serves to increase awareness on these issues. The author particularly explores health disparities from a unifying perspective that supports the understanding of why health disparities occur and how an increase in the awareness, education, and confrontation of discriminatory acts can help make changes at the organizational and societal levels. Covering topics that include cultural clashes, equity, healthcare delivery, and healthcare accessibility, this book is essential for government officials, policymakers, medical administrators, medical professionals, medical boards and directors, researchers, academicians, and students involved in gender studies, cultural studies, social justice, socioeconomics, ethics and law, government, medicine, public health, psychology, sociology, and more.

Handbook of Research on Reinventing Economies and Organizations Following a Global Health CrisisHandbook of Research on Reinventing Economies and Organizations Following a Global Health Crisis



Strategic Management Journal, 23(8), 667–670. doi:10.1002mj.246 Agur, I., ... Information Systems in Developing Countries: A Critical Research Review.

Author: Costa, Teresa Gomes da

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799869276

Category:

Page: 554

View: 163

Due to the global health crisis, economies had to adapt to combat pandemic situations. In the present pandemic crisis, new legislation, methods, labor approaches, values, and social behaviors have emerged with a huge impact in all organizations. However, countries have applied different solutions, procedures, and rules to deal with crises. Therefore, the impact has been different per country. Organizations need to understand their customers and businesses not only to increase operational efficiency but also to increase stakeholder’s satisfaction and their competitiveness in a sustainable way. Customers are becoming more exigent and markets more complex, calling for the need for higher differentiation. This was enhanced in this pandemic situation, and to survive, organizations needed to change and adapt to the new normal. The Handbook of Research on Reinventing Economies and Organizations Following a Global Health Crisis deals with management and economic issues, particularly with the reinvention of businesses and economies due to the pandemic situation and the relevance of entrepreneurship, innovation, and intensive knowledge used to deal with these changes. This book emphasizes the challenges, difficulties, and opportunities for the success of businesses and economies in periods of crisis and provides information for dealing with entrepreneurship and innovation, networks, and complementarities to recover businesses. The chapters also point out possible opportunities, challenges, and risks in the process of recovery highlighting innovation, internationalization, technology, and intensive knowledge in promoting economies and companies’ competitiveness. This book is ideal for entrepreneurs, managers, economists, directors, shareholders, researchers, academicians, and students interested in how businesses reinvent and recover following a global health crisis.

Growth of the Medical Tourism Industry and Its Impact on Society Emerging Research and OpportunitiesGrowth of the Medical Tourism Industry and Its Impact on Society Emerging Research and Opportunities



Digitalising Healthcare in Developing Economies. In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies (pp.

Author: Singh, Manjeet

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799834298

Category:

Page: 189

View: 695

Healthcare and medical services have seen rapid development in various areas of the world, including Asia and Eastern Europe. These territories are now becoming a medical hub for many surrounding countries. Medical tourism is the practice of traveling to international regions for treatment that isn’t available locally. This subject has gained significant attention throughout the tourism industry, as researchers and professionals are searching for specific advancements of medical care and hospital development in numerous countries. Growth of the Medical Tourism Industry and Its Impact on Society: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a collection of innovative research on the methods and advancement of medical travel for treatment in various global regions and provides insights for the growth prospects of the medical tourism business. While highlighting topics including destination branding, community impact, and hospital management, this book is ideally designed for medical executives, hospital directors, researchers, policymakers, academicians, practitioners, scholars, and students seeking current research on tourism practices within the medical field.

Handbook of Research on Future Opportunities for Technology Management EducationHandbook of Research on Future Opportunities for Technology Management Education



A study on human resource management practices in SMEs . ... The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries , 10 ( 1 ) , 1-14 . doi ...

Author: Khan, Basheer Ahmed

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799883296

Category:

Page: 533

View: 136

Technology management education and business education are visibly intertwined in the current educational system. Certain efforts that have taken place in the recent past are the interinstitutional discourse around the world. Technology management is a dynamic and evolving profession, driven by changes in technology, globalization, sustainability, and the increasing importance of the service economy. The Handbook of Research on Future Opportunities for Technology Management Education is a comprehensive reference book that enables readers to comprehend the trends in technological changes and the need to orient business education and technology management in workplaces. The book serves to support with the formation and implementation of appropriate policies for technology management. Covering topics such as big data analytics, cloud computing adoption, and massive open online courses (MOOCs), this text is an essential resource for managers, technologists, teachers, executives, instructional designers, libraries, university researchers, students, faculty, and industry taught leaders.

A Cultural Historical Approach to Social Displacement and University Community Engagement Emerging Research and OpportunitiesA Cultural Historical Approach to Social Displacement and University Community Engagement Emerging Research and Opportunities



Mobile Technology Diffusion in a Developing Economy. In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies (pp.

Author: Underwood, Charles

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799874027

Category:

Page: 300

View: 366

In a time of worldwide turmoil and pervasive social displacement, universities and communities have come together to meet these urgent challenges in order to support the academic and social development of displaced young people from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is crucial to understand and review how institutions, as well as individuals and collaborative groups, have worked together to expand institutional culture and practice in a process of cross-institutional expansive learning. A Cultural Historical Approach to Social Displacement and University-Community Engagement: Emerging Research and Opportunities focuses on university-community collaborative engagement as a strategic response to widespread social displacement and its implications for the educational and social development of underserved young people from displaced communities. Using a cultural historical perspective, the book offers a comparative study of collaborative engagement in multiple programs involving university and community partners in long-term efforts to address the social displacement and educational development of local young people. Specifically, it examines University-Community Links (UC Links), an international network of partnerships between universities and communities that has been addressing the educational implications of social displacement for over 20 years. This book is ideal for school faculty, students, university administrators, local community leaders, community-based organization leaders, local political leaders, teachers, and school partners, as well as researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders interested in discourse on university-community engagement in higher education, K-12, and local and state decision-making arenas.

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology Fifth EditionEncyclopedia of Information Science and Technology Fifth Edition



... please visit: www.igi-global.com/book-series Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies Richard Boateng (University of ...

Author: Khosrow-Pour D.B.A., Mehdi

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799834809

Category:

Page: 1966

View: 128

The rise of intelligence and computation within technology has created an eruption of potential applications in numerous professional industries. Techniques such as data analysis, cloud computing, machine learning, and others have altered the traditional processes of various disciplines including healthcare, economics, transportation, and politics. Information technology in today’s world is beginning to uncover opportunities for experts in these fields that they are not yet aware of. The exposure of specific instances in which these devices are being implemented will assist other specialists in how to successfully utilize these transformative tools with the appropriate amount of discretion, safety, and awareness. Considering the level of diverse uses and practices throughout the globe, the fifth edition of the Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology series continues the enduring legacy set forth by its predecessors as a premier reference that contributes the most cutting-edge concepts and methodologies to the research community. The Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fifth Edition is a three-volume set that includes 136 original and previously unpublished research chapters that present multidisciplinary research and expert insights into new methods and processes for understanding modern technological tools and their applications as well as emerging theories and ethical controversies surrounding the field of information science. Highlighting a wide range of topics such as natural language processing, decision support systems, and electronic government, this book offers strategies for implementing smart devices and analytics into various professional disciplines. The techniques discussed in this publication are ideal for IT professionals, developers, computer scientists, practitioners, managers, policymakers, engineers, data analysts, and programmers seeking to understand the latest developments within this field and who are looking to apply new tools and policies in their practice. Additionally, academicians, researchers, and students in fields that include but are not limited to software engineering, cybersecurity, information technology, media and communications, urban planning, computer science, healthcare, economics, environmental science, data management, and political science will benefit from the extensive knowledge compiled within this publication.

Handbook of Research on Global Information Technology Management in the Digital EconomyHandbook of Research on Global Information Technology Management in the Digital Economy



Includes the most important issues, concepts, trends and technologies in the field of global information technology management, covering topics such as the technical platform for global IS applications, information systems projects spanning ...

Author: Raisinghani, Mahesh S.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781599048765

Category:

Page: 588

View: 767

Includes the most important issues, concepts, trends and technologies in the field of global information technology management, covering topics such as the technical platform for global IS applications, information systems projects spanning cultures, managing information technology in corporations, and global information technology systems and socioeconomic development in developing countries.

Global Politics Political Participation and the Rise of Nationalism Emerging Research and OpportunitiesGlobal Politics Political Participation and the Rise of Nationalism Emerging Research and Opportunities



Emerging Research and Opportunities Stacey, Emily ... In R. Boateng (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies (pp.

Author: Stacey, Emily

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799873457

Category:

Page: 213

View: 363

Nationalist movements remain a force in contemporary American politics, regardless of political party. Recently, social issues have moved to the forefront of American society, and civilian participation in activism is at an all time high. The nationalism that the world started to experience pre-2016, but much more intently post-2016, has impacted international alliances, global strategies, and threatened the fragile stability that had been established in the post-September 11th world. Major political events in more recent times, such as the American election, have brought social issues into stark focus along with placing a spotlight on politics and nationalism in general. Thus, there is an updated need for research on the most current advances and information on nationalism, social movements, and activism in modern times. Global Politics, Political Participation, and the Rise of Nationalism: Emerging Research and Opportunities discusses the ways in which nationalism and nationalist ideologies have permeated throughout America and the international community. This work considers the rise of neo-nationalism stemming from the Tea Party in the United States, Brexit and the era of the Tory Divorce from Europe, contemporary electoral politics that are helping in the spread of nationalist policies and leaders (providing a normalization of policies that are sometimes anti-democratic), the 2020 resurgence of Black Lives Matter after the deaths of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, and the role of the coronavirus pandemic in helping to shape the world order to come. This book will be ideal for activists, politicians, lawyers, political science professors and researchers, international relations and comparative politics professors and students, practitioners, policymakers, researchers, academicians, and anyone interested in the current state of global politics, nationalism, and activism in political participation.

Research Anthology on Concepts Applications and Challenges of FinTechResearch Anthology on Concepts Applications and Challenges of FinTech



Management Association, Information Resources ... Factors affecting hotels' adoption of mobile reservation systems: A technology-organization-environment ...

Author: Management Association, Information Resources

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799886037

Category:

Page: 671

View: 244

FinTech, an abbreviated term for financial technology, is a digital revolution changing the way banking and financial services are being used both by individuals and businesses. As these changes continue to take place, the financial industry is focused on technological innovation and feeding into this digital revolution to better serve consumers who are looking for easier ways to invest, transfer money, use banking services, and more. FinTech is increasing accessibility to financial services, automating these services, expanding financial options, and enabling online payments and banking. While the benefits are being continually seen and this technology is becoming more widely accepted, there are still challenges facing the technology that include security concerns. To understand FinTech and its role in society, both the benefits and challenges must be reviewed and discussed for a holistic view on the digital innovations changing the face of the financial industry. The Research Anthology on Concepts, Applications, and Challenges of FinTech covers the latest technologies in FinTech with a comprehensive view of the impact on the industry, where these technologies are implemented, how they are improving financial services, and the security applications and challenges being faced. The chapters cover the options FinTech has unlocked, such as mobile banking and virtual transactions, while also focusing on the workings of the technology itself and security applications, such as blockchain and cryptocurrency. This book is a valuable reference tool for accountants, bankers, financial planners, financial analysts, business managers, economists, computer scientists, academicians, researchers, financial professionals, and students.

Handbook of Research on Expanding Business Opportunities With Information Systems and AnalyticsHandbook of Research on Expanding Business Opportunities With Information Systems and Analytics



Big data: the management revolution. ... Proceedings of Fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems, 609-611. ... Economic Research Institute.

Author: Jamil, George Leal

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522562269

Category:

Page: 455

View: 112

Recent advancements in data collection will affect all aspects of businesses, improving and bringing complexity to management and demanding integration of all resources, principles, and processes. The interpretation of these new technologies is essential to the advancement of management and business. The Handbook of Research on Expanding Business Opportunities With Information Systems and Analytics is a vital scholarly publication that examines technological advancements in data collection that will influence major change in many aspects of business through a multidisciplinary approach. Featuring coverage on a variety of topics such as market intelligence, knowledge management, and brand management, this book explores new complexities to management and other aspects of business. This publication is designed for entrepreneurs, business managers and executives, researchers, business professionals, data analysts, academicians, and graduate-level students seeking relevant research on data collection advancements.

Research Anthology on E Commerce Adoption Models and Applications for Modern BusinessResearch Anthology on E Commerce Adoption Models and Applications for Modern Business



International Journal of Information Management, 37(3), ... the Handbook of Research on Managing Information Systems in Developing Economies; pages 458-470, ...

Author: Management Association, Information Resources

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799889588

Category:

Page: 1964

View: 325

In the next few years, it is expected that most businesses will have transitioned to the use of electronic commerce technologies, namely e-commerce. This acceleration in the acceptance of e-commerce not only changes the face of business and retail, but also has introduced new, adaptive business models. The experience of consumers in online shopping and the popularity of the digital marketplace have changed the way businesses must meet the needs of consumers. To stay relevant, businesses must develop new techniques and strategies to remain competitive in a changing commercial atmosphere. The way in which e-commerce is being implemented, the business models that have been developed, and the applications including the benefits and challenges to e-commerce must be discussed to understand modern business. The Research Anthology on E-Commerce Adoption, Models, and Applications for Modern Business discusses the best practices, latest strategies, and newest methods for implementing and using e-commerce in modern businesses. This includes not only a view of how business models have changed and what business models have emerged, but also provides a focus on how consumers have changed in terms of their needs, their online behavior, and their use of e-commerce services. Topics including e-business, e-services, mobile commerce, usability models, website development, brand management and marketing, and online shopping will be explored in detail. This book is ideally intended for business managers, e-commerce managers, marketers, advertisers, brand managers, executives, IT consultants, practitioners, researchers, academicians, and students interested in how e-commerce is impacting modern business models.

Handbook of Research on International Travel Agency and Tour Operation ManagementHandbook of Research on International Travel Agency and Tour Operation Management



Maturity in Health Organization Information Systems: Metrics and Privacy Perspectives. ... of Female Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Economies.

Author: Chand Dhiman, Mohinder

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522584353

Category:

Page: 393

View: 730

Changes within the travel industry, such as globalization, consumerism, and advancements in technology, have transformed travel agencies into highly competitive businesses. To remain successful, new business approaches and models must be created in the global tourism and hospitality industry. Travel companies continue to expand their businesses in different countries and seek to collaborate with international entrepreneurs, developing the need for cross-cultural strategies and policies. As travel agencies flourish, identifying these business practices is necessary for these organizations to obtain a competitive management model at the global level. The Handbook of Research on International Travel Agency and Tour Operation Management gathers the latest methodologies, tools, models, and theories regarding tourism development and sustainability into one comprehensive reference source in order to promote, manage, and maximize the profitability potential of travel agencies and tour operation services. Featuring research on topics such as e-marketing, medical tourism, and online travel, this book provides travel agents, managers, industry professionals, researchers, academics, and students with the necessary resources to effectively develop and implement organizational strategies and models.

Handbook of Research on Information Management and the Global LandscapeHandbook of Research on Information Management and the Global Landscape



Explores the many issues surrounding living and working in a global environment. Relates how necessary it is for companies to conduct business while taking a global perspective to their operations.

Author: Hunter, M. Gordon

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781605661391

Category:

Page: 580

View: 496

Explores the many issues surrounding living and working in a global environment. Relates how necessary it is for companies to conduct business while taking a global perspective to their operations.

Handbook of Research on Strategic Fit and Design in Business EcosystemsHandbook of Research on Strategic Fit and Design in Business Ecosystems



Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm Plus MyMISLab with ... Innovation systems and the competitive processin developing economies.

Author: Hacioglu, Umit

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799811275

Category:

Page: 775

View: 609

With advancing information technology, businesses must adapt to more efficient structures that utilize the latest in robotics and machine learning capabilities in order to create optimal human-robot cooperation. However, there are vital rising concerns regarding the possible consequences of deploying artificial intelligence, sophisticated robotic technologies, automated vehicles, self-managing supply modes, and blockchain economies on business performance and culture, including how to sustain a supportive business culture and to what extent a strategic fit between human-robot collaboration in a business ecosystem can be created. The Handbook of Research on Strategic Fit and Design in Business Ecosystems is a collection of innovative research that builds a futuristic view of evolving business ecosystems and a deeper understanding of business transformation processes in the new digital business era. Featuring research on topics such as cultural hybridization, Industry 4.0, and cybersecurity, this book is ideally designed for entrepreneurs, executives, managers, corporate strategists, economists, IT specialists, IT consultants, engineers, students, researchers, and academicians seeking to improve their understanding of future competitive business practices with the adoption of robotic and information technologies.

Handbook of Research on Driving Competitive Advantage through Sustainable Lean and Disruptive InnovationHandbook of Research on Driving Competitive Advantage through Sustainable Lean and Disruptive Innovation



His research and teaching interests focus on operations management, ... widely with a focus on the formal and informal sectors of developing economies.

Author: Al-Hakim, Latif

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522501367

Category:

Page: 743

View: 655

The global market is constantly evolving and it has become essential for organizations to employ new methods of appealing to customers in order to stay abreast on current trends within the world economy. The Handbook of Research on Driving Competitive Advantage through Sustainable, Lean, and Disruptive Innovation features theoretical development and empirical research in social media platforms, internet usage, big data analytics, and smart computing, as well as other areas of organizational innovation. Highlighting implementation challenges facing innovative processes, this publication is a critical reference source for researchers, students, professionals, managers, and decision makers interested in novel strategies being employed by organizations in an effort to improve their standings on the global market.

Handbook of Research on Information Management for Effective Logistics and Supply ChainsHandbook of Research on Information Management for Effective Logistics and Supply Chains



SME Cluster and Network Development in Developing Countries: The Experience of ... Interpretation of formative measurement in information systems research.

Author: Jamil, George Leal

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522509745

Category:

Page: 554

View: 221

Evaluating the role of logistics and supply chain management skills or applications is necessary for the success of any organization or business. As market competition becomes more aggressive, it is crucial to evaluate ways in which a business can maintain a strategic edge over competitors. The Handbook of Research on Information Management for Effective Logistics and Supply Chains highlights strategies, tools, and skills necessary for supply management within organizations and companies. Featuring best practices and empirical research within the field, this handbook is a critical reference source for scholars, practitioners, researchers, information systems and telecommunication specialists, and managers.