Paleomagnetic stratigraphy and the associated fossil mammals indicate a Blancan age for this locality , about 3.5 Ma ... Based on these specimens , Equus simplicidens is estimated to have been about the size of a modern Arabian horse ...
Author: Bruce J. MacFadden
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution because it possesses an extensive fossil record. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from perspectives such as biology, geology, paleontology.
Abstract Extant species of horses have a widespread distribution today on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. To understand the diversity of horses, it is essential to know their fossil record and particularly the South ...
Author: José Luis Prado
This book provides an update on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of horses in South America based on data provided over the past three decades. The contemporary South American mammalian communities were shaped by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses were a conspicuous group of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. This group is represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, which include small species (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale). Both groups arrived in South America via 2 different routes. One model designed to explain this migration indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses used the eastern route and arrived through some coastal areas. Molecular dating (ancient DNA) suggests that the South American horses separated from the North American taxa (caballines and the New World stilt-legged horse) after 3.6 - 3.2 Ma, consistent with the final formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. Recent studies of stable isotopes in these horses indicate an extensive range of 13C values cover closed woodlands to C4 grasslands. This plasticity agrees with the hypothesis that generalist species and open biome specialist species from North America indicate a positive migration through South America.
In this chapter I will review the history of development of scientific thought with regard to fossil horses and then present a current view of the phylogeny and paleobiology of this important fossil group. In fairness to other workers ...
Author: Max K. Hecht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Evolutionary Biology, of which this is the twenty-second volume, continues to offer its readers a wide range of original articles, reviews, and commentaries on evolution, in the broadest sense of that term. The topics of the reviews range from anthropology, molecular evolution, and paleobiology to principles of systematics. In recent volumes, a broad spectrum of articles have appeared on such subjects as asymmetric sexual isolation, biochemical systematics in plants, species selection, DNA hybridization and phylogenetics, modes of evolution in Pleistocene rodents, and development and evolution of the vertebrate limb. We have also attempted to provide a forum for con flicting ideas. Articles such as these, often too long for standard journals, are the material for Evolutionary Biology. The editors continue to solicit manuscripts on an international scale in an effort to see that everyone ofthe many facets of biological evolution is covered. Manuscripts should be sent to anyone of the following: Max K. Hecht, Department of Biology, Queens College of the City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367; Bruce Wallace, Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacks burg, Virginia 24061; GhilleanT. Prance, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458. The Editors vii Contents 1. Phylogeny of Early Vertebrate Skeletal Induction and Ossification Patterns ....................................... 1 John G. Maisey Introduction: The Fossil Record.. .. .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 ..
Fossils provide much information as to the type of environment in which these prehistoric organisms lived. Fig. ... About 15 million years ago, 10–12 contemporaneous species of fossil horses occurred in North America.
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M. angustidens var . paleindicus , var . n . , LYDEKKER ( 207 ) , fossil from the Siwaliks . ... NETRING ( 242 ) ( 243 ) , on fossil horses , and their relation to living varieties and breeds ; WILCKENS ( 369 ) , on the ancestry of the ...
"Zoological Record is published annually in separate sections. The first of these is Comprehensive Zoology, followed by sections recording a year's literature relating to a Phylum or Class of the Animal Kingdom. The final section contains the new genera and subgenera indexed in the volume." Each section of a volume lists the sections of that volume.