Effective Peer LearningEffective Peer Learning



Peer learning: mutual peer interactions -- Peer-learning: directional peer interactions -- Preparing learners for constructive interactions -- Organising peer interactions in academic tasks -- Structuring peer interactions in cooperative ...

Author: Keith Topping

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1138906492

Category:

Page: 186

View: 761

Peer learning allows a positive use of differences between pupils, turning them into learning opportunities. Yet education professionals often remain unfamiliar with the principles necessary to guarantee its effectiveness. The aim of this book is to help practitioners establish well-structured and effective peer learning projects using a variety of methods. It introduces and defines cooperative learning (mutual peer interaction) and peer tutoring (directional peer interaction) - outlining general organisational principles that will help practitioners implement peer learning in either of these forms. The authors consider how to prepare and train learners to undertake their roles effectively, and how to organise and monitor the process of interaction as it is happening. They then look at how these systems actually operate in the classroom, exploring how the organisational principles work in practice and giving many practical examples. Subsequently three successive chapters consider how to structure peer interactions in cooperative learning, same-age peer tutoring and cross-age peer tutoring. Finally, the advantages and problems, and the potential and challenges, of peer learning are examined. The book should be read in stages, with each part being able to be read on its own - thus providing time for reflection. Within each part, readers can choose to focus on cooperative learning or peer tutoring. The successive focuses on definitions, general principles of implementation and practical issues of implementation should help practitioners build their skills and confidence. Many choices between methods are described, and when teachers are confident in one method they may then consider trying a new method. It is the authors' hope that the book will become a model for peer learning by sharing with readers the skills of other practitioners, and thereby helping all children to develop to their full potential.

Effective Peer LearningEffective Peer Learning



Welcome to Effective Peer Learning. In Part I we introduce the ideas of cooperative learning (mutual peer interaction) and peer tutoring (directional peer interaction), helping the practitioner to clearly establish the difference ...

Author: Keith Topping

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781317443063

Category:

Page: 186

View: 891

Peer learning allows a positive use of differences between pupils, turning them into learning opportunities. Yet education professionals often remain unfamiliar with the principles necessary to guarantee its effectiveness. The aim of this book is to help practitioners establish well-structured and effective peer learning projects using a variety of methods. It introduces and defines cooperative learning (mutual peer interaction) and peer tutoring (directional peer interaction) – outlining general organisational principles that will help practitioners implement peer learning in either of these forms. The authors consider how to prepare and train learners to undertake their roles effectively, and how to organise and monitor the process of interaction as it is happening. They then look at how these systems actually operate in the classroom, exploring how the organisational principles work in practice and giving many practical examples. Subsequently three successive chapters consider how to structure peer interactions in cooperative learning, same-age peer tutoring and cross-age peer tutoring. Finally, the advantages and problems, and the potential and challenges, of peer learning are examined. The book should be read in stages, with each part being able to be read on its own – thus providing time for reflection. Within each part, readers can choose to focus on cooperative learning or peer tutoring. The successive focuses on definitions, general principles of implementation and practical issues of implementation should help practitioners build their skills and confidence. Many choices between methods are described, and when teachers are confident in one method they may then consider trying a new method. It is the authors' hope that the book will become a model for peer learning by sharing with readers the skills of other practitioners, and thereby helping all children to develop to their full potential.

Cognitive Perspectives on Peer LearningCognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning



Webb & Farivar, and King) and issues related to providing support for effective peer interaction. ... 4) describes the documented relation between the level of discourse within a collaborative peer-learning group and the level of ...

Author: Angela M. O'Donnell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135688196

Category:

Page: 371

View: 440

The contribution of this volume to the literature on peer learning is its focus on approaches that reflect a common concern with cognitive processes based in developmental, information processing, or more generally, constructivist perspectives on peer learning. Although the clear importance of the social context of peer learning is not ignored, the volume's emphasis is on the cognitive growth that occurs within the learning environment. Any discussion of peer learning involves consideration of who is learning, how the role of peers with whom one works can be conceptualized, what it is that peers learn together, what changes as a result of the interaction, and how we can know what occurs in groups or what has been learned. The chapters in this book speak to these questions. The key question underlying many of these others is why we should worry about the intricacies of peer interaction. Both the practical and theoretical reasons for doing so are delineated. The developmental theory presented in the Introduction lays the foundation for the later descriptions of specific techniques, though many of the techniques reflect a range of other influences as well. Part I presents the implications of the work of two major theorists in cognitive development, Piaget (Ch. 1) and Vygotsky (Ch. 2). In Part II, six chapters describe a variety of peer learning techniques or models of collaboration, many of which are influenced by the work of Piaget and Vygotsky. The chapters in Part III consider the role of the teacher and the skills needed when using peer learning as an instructional strategy. The Conclusion points to areas in which further research is needed. This volume is based on original papers presented by the contributing authors in November 1996 at the Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education on Cognitive Skills and Learning With Peers.

Peer Learning in Higher EducationPeer Learning in Higher Education



While SPARK has been useful for self and peer assessment, how does it relate to peer learning? We believe that it can encourage more effective peer learning in teams for several reasons. Because the criteria are explicit and accessible ...

Author: Boud, David

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135383534

Category:

Page: 196

View: 817

While peer learning is often used informally by students - and for many can form an essential part of their HE experience - this book discusses methods of developing more effective learning through the systematic implementation of peer learning approaches.

Innovations in Allied Health Fieldwork EducationInnovations in Allied Health Fieldwork Education



Topping and Ehly (1998) have argued that peer modelling is highly influential, heightening metacognitive awareness, ... Johnson and Johnson emphasised the place of learning social skills to support development of effective peer ...

Author:

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789460913235

Category:

Page: 358

View: 675

This book presents a wide ranging, international overview of innovations in fieldwork education in three allied health disciplines.

Encyclopedia of the Sciences of LearningEncyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning



Peer learning is important because it is effective and cost-effective as documented by research reviews and meta-analyses of evaluation research. ○ Considering social benefits, peer learning is a vehicle to decrease social isolation ...

Author: Norbert M. Seel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441914279

Category:

Page: 3643

View: 595

Over the past century, educational psychologists and researchers have posited many theories to explain how individuals learn, i.e. how they acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. The 20th century can be considered the century of psychology on learning and related fields of interest (such as motivation, cognition, metacognition etc.) and it is fascinating to see the various mainstreams of learning, remembered and forgotten over the 20th century and note that basic assumptions of early theories survived several paradigm shifts of psychology and epistemology. Beyond folk psychology and its naïve theories of learning, psychological learning theories can be grouped into some basic categories, such as behaviorist learning theories, connectionist learning theories, cognitive learning theories, constructivist learning theories, and social learning theories. Learning theories are not limited to psychology and related fields of interest but rather we can find the topic of learning in various disciplines, such as philosophy and epistemology, education, information science, biology, and – as a result of the emergence of computer technologies – especially also in the field of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. As a consequence, machine learning struck a chord in the 1980s and became an important field of the learning sciences in general. As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely. The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.

Artificial Intelligence in EducationArtificial Intelligence in Education



Peer Learning Agent, Knowledge Co-construction, Initiative Introduction Peer learning has been shown to be an effective mode of learning for all participants [7,3,13]. While collaboration can be unsuccessful when members refuse to ...

Author: V. Dimitrova

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781607504467

Category:

Page: 852

View: 404

This publication covers papers presented at AIED2009, part of an ongoing series of biennial international conferences for top quality research in intelligent systems and cognitive science for educational computing applications. The conference provides opportunities for the cross-fertilization of techniques from many fields that make up this interdisciplinary research area, including: artificial intelligence, computer science, cognitive and learning sciences, education, educational technology, psychology, philosophy, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, and the many domain-specific areas for which AIED systems have been designed and evaluated. AIED2009 focuses on the theme "Building learning systems that care: from knowledge representation to affective modelling". The key research question is how to tackle the complex issues related to building learning systems that care, ranging from representing knowledge and context to modelling social, cognitive, metacognitive, and affective dimensions. This requires multidisciplinary research that links theory and technology from artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computer science with theory and practice from education and the social sciences.

Peer assisted LearningPeer assisted Learning



This volume will also be of interest to faculty and researchers in the fields of education and psychology, to community educators who want to learn about the implications of Peer Assisted Learning beyond school contexts, and to employers ...

Author: Keith Topping

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135686864

Category:

Page: 390

View: 757

Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) involves children in school consciously assisting others to learn, and in so doing learning more effectively themselves. It encompasses peer tutoring, peer modeling, peer education, peer counseling, peer monitoring, and peer assessment, which are differentiated from other more general "co-operative learning" methods. PAL is not diluted or surrogate "teaching"; it complements and supplements (but never replaces) professional teaching--capitalizing on the unique qualities and richness of peer interaction and helping students become empowered democratically to take more responsibility for their own learning. In this book, PAL is presented as a set of dynamic, robust, effective, and flexible approaches to teaching and learning, which can be used in a range of different settings. The chapters provide descriptions of good practice blended with research findings on effectiveness. They describe procedures that can be applied to all areas of the school curriculum, and can be used with learners of all levels of ability, including gifted students, students with disabilities, and second-language learners. Among the distinguished contributors, many are from North America, while others are from Europe and Australia. The applicability of the methods they present is worldwide. Peer-Assisted Learning is designed to be accessible and useful to teachers and to those who employ, train, support, consult with, and evaluate them. Many chapters will be helpful to teachers aiming to replicate in their own school environments the cost-effective procedures described. A practical resources guide is included. This volume will also be of interest to faculty and researchers in the fields of education and psychology, to community educators who want to learn about the implications of Peer Assisted Learning beyond school contexts, and to employers and others involved in post-school training.

Teaching Cooperative LearningTeaching Cooperative Learning



The authors think that the effect of this shift from generic methods courses to specific methods results in less-common language among both interns and faculty about criteria for effective cooperative groupwork.

Author: Elizabeth G. Cohen

Publisher: State University of New York Press

ISBN: 9780791485644

Category:

Page: 249

View: 219

Explores cooperative learning practices.