Drawing on a team of more than one hundred authors and reviewers, this book demonstrates the value of ecosystems and biodiversity to the economy, society and individuals.
Author: Patrick ten Brink
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study is a major international initiative drawing attention to local, national and global economic benefits of biodiversity, to highlight the growing costs of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation, the benefits of investing in natural capital, and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions. Drawing on a team of more than one hundred authors and reviewers, this book demonstrates the value of ecosystems and biodiversity to the economy, society and individuals. It underlines the urgency of strategic policy making and action at national and international levels, and presents a rich evidence base of policies and instruments in use around the world and a wide range of innovative solutions. It highlights the need for new public policy to reflect the appreciation that public goods and social benefits are often overlooked and that we need a transition to decision making which integrates the many values of nature across policy sectors. It explores the range of instruments to reward those offering ecosystem service benefits, such as water provision and climate regulation. It looks at fiscal and regulatory instruments to reduce the incentives of those running down our natural capital, and at reforming subsidies such that they respond to current and future priorities. The authors also consider two major areas of investment in natural capital - protected areas and investment in restoration. Overall the book underlines the needs and ways to transform our approach to natural capital, and demonstrates how we can practically take into account the value of ecosystems and biodiversity in policy decisions - at national and international levels - to promote the protection of our environment and contribute to a sustainable economy and to the wellbeing of societies.
This volume, along with the subsequent TEEB titles, provides the authoritative knowledge and guidance to drive forward the biodiversity conservation agenda for the next decade.
Author: Pushpam Kumar
Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of the economic system. It is against this background that TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity project was set up in 2007 and led by the United Nations Environment Programme to provide a comprehensive global assessment of economic aspects of these issues. This book, written by a team of international experts, represents the scientific state of the art, providing a comprehensive assessment of the fundamental ecological and economic principles of measuring and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity, and showing how these can be mainstreamed into public policies. This volume, along with the subsequent TEEB titles, provides the authoritative knowledge and guidance to drive forward the biodiversity conservation agenda for the next decade.
Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity is the first volume of The Handbook of Natural Resources, Second Edition (HNR). This volume consists of 46 chapters ...
Author: Yeqiao Wang
Publisher: CRC Press
Authored by world-class scientists and scholars, The Handbook of Natural Resources, Second Edition, is an excellent reference for understanding the consequences of changing natural resources to the degradation of ecological integrity and the sustainability of life. Based on the content of the bestselling and CHOICE-awarded Encyclopedia of Natural Resources, this new edition demonstrates the major challenges that the society is facing for the sustainability of all well-being on the planet Earth. The experience, evidence, methods, and models used in studying natural resources are presented in six stand-alone volumes, arranged along the main systems of land, water, and air. It reviews state-of-the-art knowledge, highlights advances made in different areas, and provides guidance for the appropriate use of remote sensing and geospatial data with field-based measurements in the study of natural resources. Volume 1, Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity, provides fundamental information on terrestrial ecosystems, approaches to monitoring, and impacts of climate change on natural vegetation and forests. New to this edition are discussions on biodiversity conservation, gross and net primary production, soil microbiology, land surface phenology, and decision support systems. This volume demonstrates the key processes, methods, and models used through many case studies from around the world. Written in an easy-to-reference manner, The Handbook of Natural Resources, Second Edition, as individual volumes or as a complete set, is an essential reading for anyone looking for a deeper understanding of the science and management of natural resources. Public and private libraries, educational and research institutions, scientists, scholars, and resource managers will benefit enormously from this set. Individual volumes and chapters can also be used in a wide variety of both graduate and undergraduate courses in environmental science and natural science at different levels and disciplines, such as biology, geography, earth system science, and ecology.
... J. M., Estes, J. A., Tegner, M. J. (2002) 'Kelp forest ecosystems: Biodiversity, stability, resilience and future', Environmental Conservation, vol 29, ...
Author: K N Ninan
This book comprehensively addresses the economic, social and institutional difficulties in conserving biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides. It covers a wide range of issues such as biodiversity, ecosystem services and valuation in the context of diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests, marine areas, wetlands and agricultural landscapes, non-timber forest products, incentives and institutions, payments for ecosystem services, governance, intellectual property rights and the protection of traditional knowledge, management of protected areas, and climate change and biodiversity. It also covers the application of environmental economics and institutional economics to different cases and the use of techniques such as contingent valuation method and game theory. The book spans the globe with case studies drawn from a cross section of regions and continents including the UK, US, Europe, Australia, India, Africa and South America.
The design and analysis of biodiversity experiments B. Schmid , A. Hector ... the potential consequences that changes in biodiversity can have on ecosystem ...
Author: Michel Loreau
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Determining the scientific relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has now emerged as one of the most important challenges in ecological and environmental science. This book provides a timely synthesis and critical assessment in order to generate a consensus on the main issues involved and stimulate new perspectives for future research.
In sum , a person who is evaluating ecosystem integrity will focus on the biological and physical structures and processes of ecosystems , and biodiversity ...
Author: Malcolm L. Hunter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Discusses the ways in which we can continue to benefit from forests, while conserving their biodiversity.
This book represents the initial probing of this central ques tion. It will be followed by other volumes in this series examining in depth the functional role of biodiversity in various ecosystems of the world.
Author: Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The biota of the earth is being altered at an unprecedented rate. We are witnessing wholesale exchanges of organisms among geographic areas that were once totally biologically isolated. We are seeing massive changes in landscape use that are creating even more abundant succes sional patches, reductions in population sizes, and in the worst cases, losses of species. There are many reasons for concern about these trends. One is that we unfortunately do not know in detail the conse quences of these massive alterations in terms of how the biosphere as a whole operates or even, for that matter, the functioning of localized ecosystems. We do know that the biosphere interacts strongly with the atmospheric composition, contributing to potential climate change. We also know that changes in vegetative cover greatly influence the hydrology and biochemistry ofa site or region. Our knowledge is weak in important details, however. How are the many services that ecosystems provide to humanity altered by modifications of ecosystem composition? Stated in another way, what is the role of individual species in ecosystem function? We are observing the selective as well as wholesale alteration in the composition of ecosystems. Do these alterations matter in respect to how ecosystems operate and provide services? This book represents the initial probing of this central ques tion. It will be followed by other volumes in this series examining in depth the functional role of biodiversity in various ecosystems of the world.
What are the impacts and dependencies of different industry sectors on biodiversity and ecosystems? How do these impacts and dependencies create risks and ...
Author: Joshua Bishop
This book is a product of the TEEB study (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity). It provides important evidence of growing corporate concern about biodiversity loss and offers examples of how leading companies are taking action to conserve biodiversity and to restore ecosystems. This book reviews indicators and drivers of biodiversity loss and ecosystem decline, and shows how these present both risks and opportunities to all businesses. It examines the changing preferences of consumers for nature-friendly products and services, and offers examples of how companies are responding. The book also describes recent initiatives to enable businesses to measure, value and report their impacts and dependencies on biodiversity and ecosystem services. The authors review a range of practical tools to manage biodiversity risks in business, with examples of how companies are using these tools to reduce costs, protect their brands and deliver real business value. The book also explores the emergence of new business models that deliver biodiversity benefits and ecosystem services on a commercial basis, the policy enabling frameworks needed to stimulate investment and entrepreneurship to realize such opportunities, and the obstacles that must be overcome. The book further examines how businesses can align their actions in relation to biodiversity and ecosystem services with other corporate responsibility initiatives, including community engagement and poverty reduction. Finally, the book concludes with a summary and recommendations for action.
Ecosystem function ORIGINAL ECOSYSTEM Replacement Fig . ... sense involves the re - establishment of natural community biodiversity as well as function .
Author: Philip W. Rundel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Human impact on natural landscapes through urbanization and agricultural expansion are becoming more and more dramatic and are the cause of serious environmental problems. This volume examines the effect of landscape disturbance on plant and animal diversity in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world. It begins with three introductory chapters broadly reviewing the issues of landscape degradation. Further contributions describe regional land use conflicts in each of the five regions. Landscape disturbance and plant diversity, and landscape disturbance and animal diversity are treated in separate chapters. Four contributions deal with demography and ecophysiology in vegetation succession following disturbance. The volume closes with a consideration of the future addressing aspects of environmental politics.
... the key socio - economic , management and governance issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of deep - sea ecosystems and biodiversity .
Author: Sybille van den Hove
The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the key socio-economic, management and governance issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of deep-sea ecosystems and biodiversity. The report highlights our current understanding of these issues and identifies topics and areas that need further investigation to close gaps in knowledge. It also explores the needs and means for interfacing research with policy with a view to contributing to the political processes regarding deep-sea and high-seas governance, which are currently ongoing in various international flora within and outside the UN system. In addition, the report provides guidance on the future direction and focus of research on environmental, socio-economic and governance aspects in relation to the deep-sea.
Biodiversity,. Ecosystem. Functioning,. Ecosystem. Services,. and. Natural. Capital. 1 1 12 12 12 13 13 1 3 11. REBECCA CHAPLIN-KRAMER, LISA MANDLE, ...
Author: Harold Mooney
Publisher: Univ of California Press
This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.
Furthermore, from an ecosystem service perspective biodiversity can be treated in multiple ways. Biodiversity can be viewed as a 'final' ecosystem service ...
Author: Julia Martin-Ortega
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This comprehensive volume describes how ecosystem services-based approaches can assist in addressing major global and regional water challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and water security in the developing world, by integrating scientific knowledge from different disciplines, such as hydrological modelling, environmental economics, psychology and international law. Empirical assessments at the national, catchment and regional levels are used to critically appraise this systemic approach, and the merits and potential limitations are presented. The practicalities of this approach with regard to water resources management, nature conservation, and sustainable business practices are discussed, and the role of society in underpinning the concept of ecosystem services is explored. Presenting new insights and perspectives on how to shape future strategies, this contributory volume is a valuable reference for researchers, academics, students and policy makers, in environmental studies, hydrology, water resource management, ecology, environmental law, policy and economics, and conservation biology.
Soil Biodiversity in Amazonian and Other Brazilian Table 5.1. ... termites are also important members of the soil fauna of tropical ecosystems.
Author: F. M. S. Moreira
The loss of biological diversity has become an increased concern over recent years and is now enshrined in international conventions. Most biodiversity in fact occurs in the soil. Soil organisms (especially bacteria, fungi and soil invertebrates) play a major role in the formation of soil structure and are primary agents of decomposition and are drivers of nutrient cycling, and hence agricultural production.This book reviews soil biodiversity in one of the key biodiversity hotspots of the world, i.e. the Amazon and nearby regions of Brazil. It covers both the tropical savannah and rain forests . The work reported is based on a project "Conservation and Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity", executed by TSBF-CIAT with co-financing from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implementation support from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The book represents a major contribution to the literature and will interest those in biodiversity conservation, soil scienceand ecology and biodiversity conservation.
This volume and subsequent TEEB outputs will provide the authoritative knowledge and guidance to drive forward the biodiversity conservation agenda for the next decade.
Author: Pushpam Kumar
Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of the economic system. It is against this background that TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity project was set up in 2007 and led by the United Nations Environment Programme to provide a comprehensive global assessment of economic aspects of these issues. This book, written by a team of international experts, represents the scientific state of the art, providing a comprehensive assessment of the fundamental ecological and economic principles of measuring and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity, and showing how these can be mainstreamed into public policies. This volume and subsequent TEEB outputs will provide the authoritative knowledge and guidance to drive forward the biodiversity conservation agenda for the next decade.
Landscape Structure and the Protection of Biodiversity The protection of biological diversity is considered to be an overarching goal of ecosystem ...
Author: Samuel David Brody
While ecosystem management requires looking beyond specific jurisdiction and focusing on broad spatial scales, most planning decisions particularly in the USA, are made at local level. By looking at land-use planning in Florida, this volume recognizes the need for planners and resource managers to address ecosystem problems at local and community levels. The factors causing ecosystem decline, such as rapid urban development and habitat fragmentation occur at the local level and are generated by local land use policies. This book argues that understanding how local jurisdictions can capture and implement the principles of managing natural systems will lead to more sustainable levels of environmental planning in the future.
However, as shown in figure 7.1, ecosystem biodiversity can considerably complicate nutrient cycles. The presence of different plants, which produce ...
Author: Moshe Shachak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Biodiversity in Drylands, the first internationally based synthesis volume in the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Series, unifies the concepts of species and landscape diversity with respect to deserts. Within this framework, the book treats several emerging themes, among them: · how animal biodiversity can be supported in deserts · diversity's relation to habitat structure, environmental variability, and species interactions · the relation between spatial scale and diversity · how to use a landscape simulation model to understand diversity · microbial contributions to biodiversity in deserts · species diversity and ecosystem processes · resource partitioning and biodiversity in fractal environments · effects of grazing on biodiversity · reconciliation ecology and the future of conservation management In the face of global change, integration is crucial for dealing with the problem of sustaining biodiversity. This book promises to be a vital resource for students, researchers, and managers interested in integrative species, resource, and landscape diversities.