The American Ideology of National Science 1919 1930The American Ideology of National Science 1919 1930

Ronald C. Tobey provides a provocative analysis of the movement to establish a national science program in the early twentieth century.

Author: Ronald C. Tobey

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 9780822975946


Page: 278

View: 754

Ronald C. Tobey provides a provocative analysis of the movement to establish a national science program in the early twentieth century. Led by several influential scientists, who had participated in centralized scientific enterprises during World War I, the new effort to conjoin science and society was an attempt to return to earlier progressive values with the hope of producing science for society's benefit. The movement was initially undermined by the new physics, and Einstein's theories of relativity, which shattered traditional views and alienated the American public. Nationalized research programs were tempered by the conservatism of corporate donors. Later, with the disintegration of progressivism, the gap between science and society made it impossible for the two cultures to unite.

Women Scientists in AmericaWomen Scientists in America

See Ronald Tobey , The American Ideology of National Science , 1919-1930 ( Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press , 1971 ) ; Stanley Coben , " Foundation Officials and Fellowships : Innovation in the Patronage of Science ...

Author: Margaret W. Rossiter

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801825091


Page: 439

View: 351

Looks at the role of women astronomers, chemists, and anthropologists in colleges, government or industrial positions, and in professional associations, and examines how they gained acceptance

Beyond the LaboratoryBeyond the Laboratory

Scientists as Political Activists in 1930s America Peter J. Kuznick ... For discussion of the history of the National Research Endowment, see Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 19191930 [Pittsburgh, 1971), ...

Author: Peter J. Kuznick

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226685427


Page: 374

View: 265

The debate over scientists' social responsibility is a topic of great controversy today. Peter J. Kuznick here traces the origin of that debate to the 1930s and places it in a context that forces a reevaluation of the relationship between science and politics in twentieth-century America. Kuznick reveals how an influential segment of the American scientific community during the Depression era underwent a profound transformation in its social values and political beliefs, replacing a once-pervasive conservatism and antipathy to political involvement with a new ethic of social reform.

The History of American Higher EducationThe History of American Higher Education

It operated through committees of experts who were familiar with scientists in their fields and recommended ... 98; Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 19191930 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, ...

Author: Roger L. Geiger

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691173061


Page: 584

View: 783

This book tells the compelling saga of American higher education from the founding of Harvard College in 1636 to the outbreak of World War II. The author traces how colleges and universities were shaped by the shifting influences of culture, the emergence of new career opportunities, and the unrelenting advancement of knowledge. He describes how colonial colleges developed a unified yet diverse educational tradition capable of weathering the social upheaval of the Revolution as well as the evangelical fervor of the Second Great Awakening. He shows how the character of college education in different regions diverged significantly in the years leading up to the Civil War - for example, the state universities of the antebellum South were dominated by the sons of planters and their culture - and how higher education was later revolutionized by the land-grant movement, the growth of academic professionalism, and the transformation of campus life by students. By the beginning of the Second World War, the standard American university had taken shape, setting the stage for the postwar education boom. The author moves through each era, exploring the growth of higher education.

To Advance KnowledgeTo Advance Knowledge

The Growth of American Research Universities, 1900-1940 Roger L. Geiger ... See Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 19191930 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971), 4–12, for the delining ...

Author: Roger L. Geiger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351471824


Page: 325

View: 813

American research universities are part of the foundation for the supremacy of American science. Although they emerged as universities in the late nineteenth century, the incorporation of research as a distinct part of their mission largely occurred after 1900. To Advance Knowledge relates how these institutions, by 1940, advanced from provincial outposts in the world of knowledge to leaders in critical areas of science. This study is the first to systematically examine the preconditions for the development of a university research role. These include the formation of academic disciplines--communities that sponsored associations and journals, which defined and advanced fields of knowledge. Only a few universities were able to engage in these activities. Indeed, universities before World War I struggled to find the means to support their own research through endowments, research funds, and faculty time. To Advance Knowledge shows how these institutions developed the size and wealth to harbor a learned faculty. The book illustrates how arrangements for research changed markedly in the 1920s when the great foundations established from the Rockefeller and Carnegie fortunes embraced the advancement of knowledge as a goal. Universities emerged in this decade as the best-suited vessels to carry this mission. Foundation resources made possible the development of an American social science. In the natural sciences, this patronage allowed the United States to gain parity with Europe on scientific frontiers, of which the most important was undoubtedly nuclear physics. The research role of universities cannot be isolated from the institutions themselves. To Advance Knowledge focuses on sixteen universities that were significantly engaged with research during this era. It analyzes all facets of these institutions--collegiate life, sources of funding, treatment of faculty--since all were relevant to shaping the research role.

American StudiesAmerican Studies

An Annotated Bibliography Jack Salzman, American Studies Association. 544 PP . that the statutory language of health policy bills can have ... TOBEY , RONALD C. The American Ideology of National Science , 19191930 . Pittsburgh , Pa .

Author: Jack Salzman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521266874


Page: 2058

View: 485

A major three-volume bibliography, including an additional supplement, of an annotated listing of American Studies monographs published between 1900 and 1988.

A History of the Book in AmericaA History of the Book in America

Also see Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 19191930 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971), 1–4. 74. Corn, “Educating the Enthusiast,” 29. 75. Ibid., 62. 76. Mott, A History of American Magazines, ...

Author: Carl F. Kaestle

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 9781469625829


Page: 688

View: 462

In a period characterized by expanding markets, national consolidation, and social upheaval, print culture picked up momentum as the nineteenth century turned into the twentieth. Books, magazines, and newspapers were produced more quickly and more cheaply, reaching ever-increasing numbers of readers. Volume 4 of A History of the Book in America traces the complex, even contradictory consequences of these changes in the production, circulation, and use of print. Contributors to this volume explain that although mass production encouraged consolidation and standardization, readers increasingly adapted print to serve their own purposes, allowing for increased diversity in the midst of concentration and integration. Considering the book in larger social and cultural networks, essays address the rise of consumer culture, the extension of literacy and reading through schooling, the expansion of secondary and postsecondary education and the growth of the textbook industry, the growing influence of the professions and their dependence on print culture, and the history of relevant technology. As the essays here attest, the expansion of print culture between 1880 and 1940 enabled it to become part of Americans' everyday business, social, political, and religious lives. Contributors: Megan Benton, Pacific Lutheran University Paul S. Boyer, University of Wisconsin-Madison Una M. Cadegan, University of Dayton Phyllis Dain, Columbia University James P. Danky, University of Wisconsin-Madison Ellen Gruber Garvey, New Jersey City University Peter Jaszi, American University Carl F. Kaestle, Brown University Nicolas Kanellos, University of Houston Richard L. Kaplan, ABC-Clio Publishing Marcel Chotkowski LaFollette, Washington, D.C. Elizabeth Long, Rice University Elizabeth McHenry, New York University Sally M. Miller, University of the Pacific Richard Ohmann, Wesleyan University Janice A. Radway, Duke University Joan Shelley Rubin, University of Rochester Jonathan D. Sarna, Brandeis University Charles A. Seavey, University of Missouri, Columbia Michael Schudson, University of California, San Diego William Vance Trollinger Jr., University of Dayton Richard L. Venezky (1938-2004) James L. W. West III, Pennsylvania State University Wayne A. Wiegand, Florida State University Michael Winship, University of Texas at Austin Martha Woodmansee, Case Western Reserve University

Open Standards and the Digital AgeOpen Standards and the Digital Age

the systematic links between scientific knowledge, industrial experience, and bureaucratic skill.15 The experience ... See also Ronald C. Tobey, The American Ideology of National Science, 19191930 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh ...

Author: Andrew L. Russell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139916615



View: 965

How did openness become a foundational value for the networks of the twenty-first century? Open Standards and the Digital Age answers this question through an interdisciplinary history of information networks that pays close attention to the politics of standardization. For much of the twentieth century, information networks such as the monopoly Bell System and the American military's Arpanet were closed systems subject to centralized control. In the 1970s and 1980s however, engineers in the United States and Europe experimented with design strategies to create new digital networks. In the process, they embraced discourses of 'openness' to describe their ideological commitments to entrepreneurship, technological innovation, and participatory democracy. The rhetoric of openness has flourished - for example, in movements for open government, open source software, and open access publishing - but such rhetoric also obscures the ways the Internet and other 'open' systems still depend heavily on hierarchical forms of control.

Corporate Research Laboratories and the History of InnovationCorporate Research Laboratories and the History of Innovation

The American Ideology of National Science, 1919-1930. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Tolbert, Pamela S., Robert J. David, and Wesley D. Sine. 2011. “Studying Choice and Change: The Intersection of Institutional Theory ...

Author: David M. Pithan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000410303


Page: 278

View: 685

With the beginning of the twentieth century, American corporations in the chemical and electrical industries began establishing industrial research laboratories. Some went on to become world-famous not only for their scientific and technological breakthroughs but also for the new union of science and industry they represented. Innovative ideas do not simply appear out of the blue and spread on their own merit. Rather, the laboratory's diffusion takes place in a cultural context that goes beyond corporate capital and technological change. Using discourse analysis as a method to comprehensively capture the organizational field of the early American R&D laboratories from 1870 to 1930, this book uncovers the collective meanings associated with the industrial laboratory. Meanings such as what and where a laboratory is supposed to be, who the scientist is, and what it means to practice science provided cultural resources that made the transfer of the laboratory from academic science into an industrial setting possible by rendering such meanings understandable and operable to big business and organizational entrepreneurs fighting for hegemony in a rapidly evolving market. It analyzes not only the corporations that established laboratories in the United States but also their contexts – economic, political, and especially scientific – showing how "the industrial laboratory" was transformed from an organizational novelty into an expected institution in less than two decades. This book will be of interest to researchers, academics, historians, and students in the fields of organizational change, discourse studies, the management of technology and innovation, as well as business and management history.