This book brings together new research and analysis examining the relationship between green box subsidies and sustainable development goals, and explores options for future reform.
Author: Ricardo Meléndez-Ortiz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Growing evidence suggests that 'green box' farm subsidies may in fact affect production and trade, harm farmers in developing countries and cause environmental damage. This book brings together new research and analysis examining the relationship between green box subsidies and sustainable development goals, and explores options for future reform.
trade distorting effect.594 It is difficult for green box definitions to allow for the development of a full range of ... 596 Meléndez-Ortiz, Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development ...
Author: Farai Chigavazira
Publisher: Anchor Academic Publishing
The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) was adopted to eliminate the illegitimate use of trade distorting agricultural subsidies and, thereby, reduce and avoid the negative effects subsidies have on global agricultural trade. However, the AoA has been fashioned in a way that is enabling developed countries to continue high levels of protectionism through subsidization, whilst many developing countries are facing severe and often damaging competition from imports artificially cheapened through subsidies. The regulation of subsidies by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has been a highly sensitive issue. This is mainly due to the fear of compromising on food security, especially by developed countries. Developing countries have suffered negatively from the subsidy programmes of developed countries, which continue to subsidize their agricultural sector. This position of developing countries in the global trade system, which has been described as weak, has drawn criticism of the WTO, namely that it does not protect the interests of the weak developing nations, but rather strengthens the interests of the strong developed nations. The green box provisions which are specifically designed to regulate payments that are considered trade neutral or minimally trade distorting have grossly been manipulated by developed countries at the mercy of the AoA. Developed countries continue to provide trade distorting subsidies under the guise of green box support. This is defeating the aims and objectives of the AoA. The study examines the regulation of WTO agricultural subsidies from the developing countries’ perspective. It looks at the problems WTO member states face with trade distorting subsidies, but focuses more on the impact these have on developing states. It scrutinizes the AoA’s provisions regulating subsidies by adopting a perspective to identify any loopholes or shortcomings which undermine the interests and aspirations of developing countries. This is against the background that some of the provisions of the AoA are lenient towards the needs of developed countries at the expense of developing countries.
This book provides background regarding the vulnerability of U.S. agricultural support programs to potential WTO dispute settlement challenges.
Author: Randall Dean Schnepf
Publisher: Nova Publishers
This book provides background regarding the vulnerability of U.S. agricultural support programs to potential WTO dispute settlement challenges. It does not predict which WTO members might challenge U.S. commodity subsidies, nor will the likelihood that such challenges be brought. Instead, this book reviews the general criteria for successfully challenging a farm subsidy program, and then uses available data and published economic analyses to weigh U.S. farm programs against these criteria.
592 See WTO, Committee on Agriculture, Special Session, Agreement on Agriculture: Green Box/Annex 2 Subsidies, Proposal to the June 2000 Special Session of the Committee on Agriculture by Cuba, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Pakistan, ...
Author: Fitzgerald Temmerman
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
It is clear that more sustainable and efficient use of fresh water resources will become crucial in future global water management to avoid major threats to biological life. Trade in Water Under International Law offers a careful and well-reasoned introduction and analysis of this emerging and largely unchartered subject of international trade law, which has hitherto been of key importance in domestic law and policy, exploring the potential and limits of addressing the use of water resources in the context of World Trade Organization law.
and when the subsidy causes adverse effects, as it is clear from the actionable-subsidies discipline43), ... See ictsd, Agricultural Subsidies in the wto Green Box: Ensuring Coherence with Sustainable Development Goals, September 2009, ...
Author: Dário Moura Vicente
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Towards a Universal Justice? Putting International Courts and Jurisdictions into Perspective offers a comprehensive overview of legal issues concerning the role and interrelations of international courts and jurisdictions.
hence permitted considering the ongoing reforms based on the objectives of the WTO. A general interpretation for creating a distinction with other categories of subsidies can be, that green box subsidies are supportive measures for ...
Author: Gurwinder Singh
This book analyses subsidies from various perspectives and creates a model that determines whether or not their use is justified. Further, it analyses the various causes of trade distortion, trade-discriminatory practices, and other issues associated with unregulated subsidies. In addition, the book considers how these issues fall within the scope of subsidies described under the SCM Agreement. The primary discussion from the perspective of WTO objective concerns the trade practice of awarding subsidies, for exports and also for protectionist purposes. Here, the terms justifiable and non-justifiable are used as hypothetical parameters to determine the extent of state support, considering the country classification based on economic and technological criteria, and their objectives for development. These parameters are distinct from Prohibited, Actionable, and Non-Actionable subsidies, as classified under the SCM Agreement. Subsidies awarded for the purposes of development and for welfare are considered as justifiable, whereas subsidies for the promotion of exports or state measures adopted for protectionist purposes are non-justifiable. Lastly, the book addresses the implications of such subsidies on the core objectives of the WTO and in connection with fair trade values.
'What Is the Evidence of the Impact of Agricultural Trade Liberalisation on Food Security in Developing Countries? ... 'Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries.
Author: Hope Johnson
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Globalised agriculture and food systems are at the crux of significant issues facing humanity from the rise in diet-related diseases to water pollution and biodiversity loss. Yet, legal scholarship on the regulation of agriculture and food is only now emerging. This timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the public international rules influencing agriculture. Each chapter considers the regulatory instruments that intersect with different components of agricultural systems from land tenure and soils through to agricultural in-puts and trade.
Josling, T. and Blandford, D. (2009) 'Biofuels Subsidies in the Green Box', in R. Melendez-Ortiz, C. Bellmann and J. Hepburn (eds), Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 530–568.
Author: Joseph McMahon
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ÔThe range of topics covered in this volume is multi-faceted and various. . . Practitioners with clients involved in agri-business will be particularly interested in the broad spectrum of matters discussed, as will trade negotiators, policy advisors and graduate students in this vital and fascinating field.Õ Ð Phillip Taylor MBE and Elizabeth Taylor, The Barrister Magazine Agriculture has been the unruly horse of the GATT/WTO system for a long time and efforts to halter it are still ongoing. This Research Handbook focuses on aspects of agricultural production and trade policy that are recognized for their importance but are often kept out of the limelight, such as the implication of national and international agricultural production and trade policies on national food security, global climate change, and biotechnology. It provides a summary of the state of the WTO agriculture negotiations as well as the relevant jurisprudence, but also, and uniquely, it focuses on the new and emerging issues of agricultural trade law and policy that are rarely addressed in the existing literature. With contributions from a multi-disciplinary team of leading analysts from around the world, this Research Handbook will appeal to trade negotiators, international trade law and policy academics as well as postgraduate students in the field.
TABLE 1.2 The WTO's colored boxes for domestic support in agriculture Amber box Includes all domestic support ... Green box Subsidies that do not distort trade or that at most cause a minimal distortion (such as government monies for ...
Author: Michael Carolan
In this second edition of The Sociology of Food and Agriculture, students are provided with a substantially revised and updated introductory text to this emergent field. The book begins with the recent development of agriculture under capitalism and neo-liberal regimes, and the transformation of farming and peasant agriculture from a small-scale, family-run way of life to a globalized system. Topics such as the global hunger and obesity challenges, GM foods, and international trade and subsidies are assessed as part of the world food economy. The final section concentrates on themes of sustainability, food security, and food sovereignty. The book concludes on a positive note, examining alternative agri-food movements aimed at changing foodscapes at levels from the local to the global. With increased coverage of the financialization of food, food and culture, gender, ethnicity and justice, food security, and food sovereignty, the book is perfect for students with little or no background in sociology and is also suitable for more advanced courses as a comprehensive primer. All chapters include learning objectives, suggested discussion questions, and recommendations for further reading to aid student learning.
Agricultural support notified by the UK under this Box will be more difficult for WTO Members to challenge since Amber ... Green Box, see R. Meléndez-Ortiz, C. Bellmann and J. Hepburn (eds), Agricultural Subsidies in the WTO Green Box: ...
Author: Ludivine Petetin
Acknowledging the challenges and opportunities raised by Brexit for the agri-food supply chain and agricultural policies across the UK, this book provides the first in-depth analysis of agricultural policy developments across the UK’s four nations rooted in strong theoretical and practical underpinnings. Arguing that the four nations could be more ambitious in departing from the Common Agricultural Policy and extending beyond the ‘public money for public goods’ approach adopted across the UK, it critiques the core attributes of their policies with focuses including the debate over outcome-based schemes, governance mechanisms, impacts on farm diversity and path dependency on the Common Agricultural Policy and English approaches. It promotes a ‘resilient agriculture’ paradigm and utilises social-ecological services, net zero, agroecology and agri-food democracy as the main pathways to achieve this. In doing so, it scrutinises the evolving contextual, political and legal landscape within which devolved and UK agricultural policies are developing from a multilevel governance perspective, examining the implications of WTO law for the UK and its devolved administrations to determine environmental, food and animal welfare standards under the GATT, the SPS and TBT Agreements and financial support schemes under the Agreement on Agriculture. The book assesses the significance of the Northern Ireland Protocol, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement with the EU and other free trade agreements for standards across the UK and access to markets. From a domestic perspective, challenges to devolution and the stability of the Union are highlighted. Elements of unilateral recentralisation are visible via financing mechanisms, the UK Internal Market Act and the Agriculture Act. The book’s interdisciplinary nature makes it of interest to lawyers, political scientists, economists, human geographers and scientists, as well as policy-makers, agricultural communities, civil society organisations and think tanks in the devolved administrations, the UK, the EU and beyond.